A promise in consideration of efforts by personal solicitation to procure a pardon, or in consideration of the assent or withdrawal of opposition to the granting of a pardon is generally held invalid since the decision of the pardoning power should not be influenced by persuasions of those paid to make or withhold them.16 But if the means contemplated and used are open and professedly made for pay, as in the preparation of a petition and making an argument before the pardoning power, the agreement is generally upheld.17

16 Norman v. Cole, 3 Esp. 253; Haines v. Lewis, 54 Iowa, 301, 6 N. W. 406, 37 Am. Rep. 202; Deering v. Cunnin-ham, 63 Kans. 174, 65 Pac. 263, 54 I* R. A. 410; Gordon v. Gordon, 168 Ky. 400, 413, 182 S. W. 220, L. R. A. 1016 D. 576 (statutory); Wildey v. Collier, 7 Md. 273, 61 Am. Dec. 346; Buck v. Paw Paw First Nat. Bank, 27 Mich. 203, 15 Am. Rep. 180; Kribben v. Haycraft, 26 Mo. 306; O'Reilly v. Cleary, 8 Mo. App. 186, 100; Hate-field v. Gulden, 7 Watts, 152, 32 Am. Dec. 750.

17 Formby v. Pryor, 15 Ga. 258; Bird v. Meadows, 25 Ga. 251; Wildey v. Collier, 7 Md. 273, 61 Am. Dec. 346; Timothy v. Wright, 8 Gray, 522; Moyer v. Cantieny, 41 Minn. 242, 42 N. W. 1060; Houlton v. Dunn, 60 Minn. 26, 61 N. W. 808, 30 L. R. A.

737, 51 Am. St. 403; Chadwick v. Knox, 31 N. H. 226, 64 Am. Dec. 320; New-bold v. McCrorey, 103 S. Car. 200, 87 S. . 542. See also Lampleigh v. Brathwait, Hobart, 105; Gordon v. Gordon, 168 Ky. 400, 182 S. W. 220, L. R. A. 1016 D. 576. In Moyer v. Gantieny, 41 Minn. 242,42 N. W. 1060, the fact that the promised compensation was contingent on the granting of the pardon was held not to invalidate the agreement.