Since a common-law lien is a right to keep possession of personal property until a claim due from the owner to a person so keeping possession is satisfied, some authorities hold that such a lien is a personal right, and therefore non-assignable.1 Equitable liens which consist in the right of the holder thereof to priority of payment have been held to be assignable by some authorities,2 but other courts have held that such liens can not be assigned.3 Maritime liens are generally held to be assignable,4 as a lien of mariners for wages.5 or a lien for wharfage.6 Statutory liens analogous to common-law liens which consist in the right to retain possession of personalty are held by some authorities to be non-assignable.7 Other authorities have held such liens to be assignable.8 Statutory liens which consist in the right of the holder thereof to priority of payment out of the proceeds of property subject to the lien, and which do not involve merely the right to retain possession of property, may be assigned.9 Liens created by express contract as distinguished from those created by the operation of the law are generally held assignable.10 The mere right to obtain a lien does not pass by assignment.11 This rule has been changed in some states by statute, and the right to obtain a lien passes by assignment of the debt.12 The assignee is also entitled to such rights of priority as his assignor enjoyed. Thus where wages of laborers are entitled to preference the assignee of such wages has the same preference.13 So the assignee may avail himself of a decree in favor of his assignor, though rendered after the assignment and in a suit to which the assignee was not a party.14 Personal remedies for enforcing the contract do not pass by assignment of the contract.15

12Garretson v. Ferrall, 78 Ia. 166. 6 L. R. A. 377, 42 N. W. 637.

13Stratton v. Bankers' Life Co.. 102 Neb. 755. 1 A. L. R. 1671. 169 N. W. 722.

1 Roberta v. Jacks, 31 Ark. 597, 25 Am. Pep. 584; Lovett v. Brown, 40 N. H. 511; Dewing v. Hutton, 40 W. Va. 521, 21 S. E. 780.

Contra, Coit v. Waples, 1 Minn. 134; Woodland Co. v. Mendenhall, 82 Minn. 483, 85 N. W. 164.

2 Lamm v. Armstrong, 95 Minn. 434, 111 Am. St. Rep. 479, 104 N. W. 304.

Vendor's lien. Gessner v. Palmateer, 89 Cal. 89. 13 L. R. A. 187, 24 Par. 608. 26 Pac. 789; Lapow v. Badollet. 1 Blackf. (Ind.) 416, 12 Am. Dec. 258; Lamm v. Armstrong, 95 Minn. 434, 111 Am. St. Rep. 479, 104 N. W. 304: Douglass v. Blount. 95 Tex. 369. 58 L. R. A. 699, 67 S. W. 484; Schmertz v. Hammond. 47 W. Va. 527, 35 S. E. 945.

Contra, that a vendor's lien is personal, and therefore, being non-assignable, does not pass by assignment of the purchase money. Elder v. Jones, 85 11l. 384; Law v. Butler. 44 Minn. 482, 9 L. R. A. 856, 47 N. W. 53; Hammond v. Peyton, 34 Minn. 529, 27 N. W. 72.

3 Carlton v. Buckner, 28 Ark. 66.

4 The Sarah J. Weed, 2 Lowell (U. S.) 555.

5 The William M. Hoag, 69 Fed. 742.

6 The Shrewsbury, 69 Fed. 1017.

7 Lien of livery stable keeper. Glascock v. Lemp. 26 Ind. App. 175, 59 N. E. 342.

Contra. McPherson First National Bank v. Commission Co., 61 Mo. App. 143.

8 Lien of attorney. Sibley v. Pine County, 31 Minn. 201, 17 N. W. 837.

9 United States. Davis v. Bilsland,

85 U. S. (18 Wall.) 659, 21 L. ed. 069. Mechanic's lien. Davis v. Bilsland,

86 U. S. (18 Wall.) 659, 21 L. ed. 969. California. Duncan v. Hawn, 104

Cal. 10, 37 Pac. 626.

Florida. Clarkson v. Louderback, 36 Fla. 660, 19 So. 887.

Maine. Murphy v. Adams, 71 Me. 113, 36 Am. Rep. 299.

Minnesota. Sibley v. Pine County, 31 Minn. 201, 17 N. W. 337.

Nebraska. Henry, etc., Co. v. Fish-erdick, 37 Neb. 207, 55 N. W. 643.

Virginia. Iaege v. Bossieux, 56 Va. (15 Gratt.) 83, 76 Am. Dec. 189.

Washington. Logging lien. Casey v. Ault, 4 Wash. 167, 29 Pac. 1048.

Contra, that mechanics' liens cannot be assigned. Lovett v. Brown, 40 N. H. 511. So by statute. O'Connor v. Ry., 1ll Mo. 185, 20 S. W. 16. So before statute. First National Bank of Decorah v. Dav. 52 Ta. 680, 3 N W. 728. Statutory lien for materials furnished for a boat. The Victorian No. 2, 26 Or. 194, 46 Am. St. Rep. 616, 41 Pac. 1103. Tax lien. Hart v. Tiernan. 59 Conn. 521, 21 Atl. 1007. Lien for assessments. Gill v. Dunham (Cal.)

34 Pac. 68. Lien on threshing machine to secure laborers' wages. Duncan v. Hawn, 104 Cal. 10, 37 Pac. 626.

10Ober v. Gallagher, 93 U. S. 199, 23 L. ed. 829. Law. Paramore v. Na-bers, 42 la. 659; Macomber v. Parker, 31 Mass. (14 Pick.) 497. Equity. Payne v. Wilson, 74 N. Y. 348.

11 Lien for street paving. Rauer v. Fay, 110 Cal. 361, 42 Pac. 902.

12 Mechanics' lien. Leftwich Lumber Co. v. Savings Association, 104 Ala. 584, 18 So. 48; Kinney v. Ore Co., 58 Minn. 455, 49 Am. St. Rep. 528. 60 N. W. 23; Bank v. School Directors, 91 Wis. 596, 65 N. W. 368. Landlord's lien on crops. Ballard v. Mayfield, 107 Ala. 396, 18 So. 29.

13 In re Campbell, 102 Fed. 686; Dren-nen v. Deposit Co., 115 Ala. 592, 66 Am. St. Rep. 72, 39 L. R. A. 623, 23 So. 164; Falconio v. Larsen, 31 Or. 137, 37 L. R. A. 254, 48 Pac. 703; Mcllhennv v. Binz, 80 Tex. 1, 26 Am. St. Rep. 705. 13 S. W. 655.

14 Kramer v. Wood (Tenn. Ch. App.), 52 S. W. 1113.

15 Right to distrain goods of tenant. Hutsell v. Bank, 102 Ky. 410, 39 L. R. A. 403, 43 S. W. 469.