In chapters XIV and XV instructions were given for "raising" bowls and other forms by the simplest method - beating into a hollow in a block. The second method, raising by "coursing," was presented in chapter XVI (Raising By Coursing, Hard Soldering). The third method, raising by "wrinkling," is now to be taken up. This is the fastest method of raising any large and deep object, such as a vase, without seaming. This is a fast method, but at the same time it requires considerable practice and a higher degree of skill than the other methods.
Fig. 110 shows a piece of work that has been "wrinkled" for the first hammering, with the hammer and the wrinkling block used in the process. The steps taken are as follows: Cut out a piece of metal, 18-gage, the size and shape required, and with the pencil compass mark a circle the size of the base. In this case a circular piece of metal was used, but the method is the same for square or oval objects. Get a piece of hard wood, about 2"x2"x8", and make a wrinkling block of it by filing a crease in the end, as shown in Fig. 110. Place the block in the vise and with the thin neck hammer shown beat the metal into the crease. There are two points to be careful of: the first one is to allow the metal to bend in freely when hammering the wrinkles; that is, do not try to stretch the metal when driving it into the wrinkling block. The second point is to be sure to have the wrinkles evenly spaced and straight.
Fig. 110. Hammer and block used in wrinkling, and piece of work snowing- the first step.
The next step is to beat down the wrinkles with a raising hammer, holding the piece of work upon a tee-stake the same as when " raising by coursing." 13 By looking closely at the right-hand side of the piece of work shown in Fig. 110, it can be seen where the first course has been started. Care must be taken not to allow the wrinkles to fold over when beating them down, as this would result in the metal cracking. When the metal gets hard and stiff, soften it by "annealing" as described before.
Fig. Ill shows an unfinished vase, 9" high, that was raised entirely by the " wrinkling process." It will be seen, however, that the coursing process will have to be used to carry it to completion.
Figs. 112 and 113 show other vases raised into shape from a flat circular disk by the same methods.
The three kettles. Figs. 114, 115, 117, were raised into shape by the same methods, the patterns for the spouts and handles being drawn and laid out in the manner described for hollow pitcher handles, and soldered on to the body with silver solder. The knobs on the covers are hollow, being part of the cover hammered out to form the knob.
Art metalwork divides itself into four large divisions, namely: flat work, such as the paper knife; bent and riveted work, such as the clock and the lantern; raised work, such as bowls and vases; seamed work, such as pitchers and vases that are not beaten up from a flat disk, but have a seam or joint that is soldered together with silver solder. It is this last division, "seamed work," that we are now to deal with.
Fig. 111. Unfinished vase nine inches high, raised by the "wrinkling- process.*'
13See Fig. 94, p. 133.
Fig. 112. Copper vase raised from flat piece of metal.
Pig. 113. Copper vase raised from flat piece of metal.
Fig. 114. Kettle.
Fig. 115. Kettle and tray.
Fig. 116. Method of obtaining pattern for seamed and fluted vase.
"We will take the seamed and fluted vase, Fig. 118, for a description of the simplest kind of seamed work. It is first necessary to obtain a pattern that will, when it is cut out of metal and the seam soldered together, be the approximate size and form of the vase that is to be made. The method of obtaining this pattern is shown in Fig. 116. We must first have an accurately drawn outline of the size and shape of the finished vase, as shown at 1, Fig. 116. It will be noticed that the vase approximates in shape the form of a cone. We can easily develop a pattern of a cone, so we proceed as tho the vase were a cone, as at 2. It can readily be seen that if we can obtain a cone of metal the shape of the heavy lines, it will be a comparatively simple matter to hammer out the top and hammer in the bottom, to produce the form of the vase.
To obtain the pattern of the flat piece of metal that will roll up into a cone of the desired shape and size, proceed as follows: Extend the general lines of the vase in a straight line upward until they meet at B. In extending these lines, disregard any slight curves, as may be seen in the sketch. The heavy lines show the cone desired. Draw a half circle the size of the base of the cone, and divide it into eight equal parts. Lay off the line A-B, as shown in 3, also the distance C-B. Draw an are with A-B as the radius, and another with B-C as the radius. With the dividers carefully measure one of the eight equal parts of the half circle drawn at the base of 2, and lay off the distance sixteen times on the arc A-D, in 3. Where the sixteenth space ends, draw the line D-B. The space enclosed by A-D, D-E, E-C, C-A is the pattern that will roll up into the cone desired.
Fig. 117. Kettle.
Fig. 118. Seamed and fluted vase.
Fig. 119. Seamed vases.
Patterns may be developed in the same way for any vase or pitcher form. A few suggestions are given at 4.
To make the vase, first cut a piece of metal (copper, brass, or silver) the size and shape of the pattern, and prepare the edges of the seam for soldering by striking them with a file, thus making them rough so that the solder will hold the seam firmly. Roll the metal so that the edges come together, being sure that they fit perfectly, and hold them in place by binding them together with soft iron wire,'in the manner shown in Fig. 116. The vase is now ready for soldering with silver solder by the method described in chapter XVI (Raising By Coursing, Hard Soldering).
After it is soldered and has been cleaned by "pickling" in the sulphuric acid solution, it should be made true and round with a mallet on a tee-stake, and the top should be hammered out and the bottom beaten in to conform to the outline desired. It will probably be necessary to soften it by "annealing" during this process; if so, care must be taken not to get the seam so hot that the solder will melt. After it has been brought to the desired shape, the bottom edge should be filed flat and a piece of metal the right size soldered on for the bottom.