To make the round candlestick, make a paper pattern of the pillar, remembering that the top must be large enough to hold the ink-well, also to allow enough extra metal at the seam to lap over and rivet. Cut it out of the flat copper and with the prick punch mark the places for the rivets along one of the edges; then bend the copper around the blow-horn stake, beating it with the mallet until the edges lap over. Drill the holes for the rivets, and rivet the end holes first. Always place the heads of the rivets inside the pillar, and rivet one at a time on the blow-horn stake. If any difficulty is found in getting a rivet into its hole, place the rivet point upward on a flat file, insert in the tube, and the rivet will easily pass into the hole.

The pillar will now have straight sides and look something like E. Fig. 39. Bend out the top and bottom on the blow-horn stake with the neck hammer until it looks like F in the drawing, being careful not to break any of the rivets. If a larger top is desired, cut out a piece of metal and rivet on top, as shown in the photographs. Now hammer smooth with the flat face of the ball-pein hammer and with the neck hammer, and it is ready for riveting to the base.

The base is made by cutting out a circular piece the size wanted and beating into shape in a depression in a block of wood, hammering it smooth with the ball-pein hammer on the No. 153, H, smooth-ing-stake.5 Wherever possible, avoid leaving the raw edge of the copper, as it is likely to scratch and scrape anything it comes in contact with. For instance, if we should leave the edge of the base as it is now, it would scratch any table or piece of furniture it might be placed upon. It would also be liable to get bent out of shape. To avoid this, we will lap the edge of the base up or down by the process used in the case of the book-end. Then rivet the pillar to the base.

4See Fig. 11, p. 64.

Fig. 43. Candlesticks

Fig. 43. Candlesticks.

Fig . 44. Copper lamp trimmed with brass.

Fig. 44. Copper lamp trimmed with brass.

If it is desired to make a better and more finished piece of work, the base may be made more solid and substantial by lapping another piece of flat copper on to the base instead of merely lapping the edge. This is done by cutting out another piece of copper 1/4" larger in diameter than the base of the candlestick, turning the edge of the flat piece over at right angles on the lapping-tool, and fitting the base into it, as shown at G, Fig. 39; then with the neck hammer carefully bend the edge over on to the base and hammer down smooth, as shown at H in the drawing. Color and finish by any of the previously described methods.

For a square candlestick, the process is similar, except that the base is raised into shape in the same way as the match-holder base, and the pillar is shaped on a square piece of iron or steel.

Candlesticks may be made without the use of the glass ink-well, by making the top smaller and filling the pillar nearly full of plaster of paris mixed with water. The plaster will support the candle and stop it from dropping down too far

The table lamp shown in Fig. 44 is a logical development of the candlestick problem. The construction is substantially the same, the only difference being that the pillar is larger, and arms are added to support the shade. These arms are made of round copper wire flattened at the end and riveted to the pillar. In this and the preceding chapters, copper has been specified for the problems to save repetition of words, but brass may be used instead of copper in every case. The same instructions apply to both brass and copper, except in coloring, as has been previously explained.

The napkin-ring shown in Fig. 45 is an interesting problem in riveting. It was made from a piece of flat copper 6" long by 2" wide. The ends are beveled with a file, lapped over about 3/16", with three holes drilled or punched thru for the rivets. After it is riveted the edges may be hammered out in many interesting shapes, one of which is shown.

The napkin-ring shown is one of many made by seventh and eighth- grade girls in a one-room country school, with very limited equipment.

Fig . 45. Riveted napkin ringr.

Fig. 45. Riveted napkin-ringr.