The alternating current, owing to this surging movement, makes the poles alternately positive and negative. To express this more clearly, supposing we take a line (A, Fig. 112), which is called the zero line, or line of no electricity. The current may be represented by the zigzag line (B). The lines (B) above zero (A) may be designated as positive, and those below the line as negative. The polarity reverses at the line A, goes up to D, which is the maximum intensity or voltage above zero, and, when the current falls and crosses the line A, it goes in the opposite direction to E, which is its maximum voltage in the other direction. In point of time, if it takes one second for the current to go from C to F, on the down line, then it takes only a half second to go from C to G, so that the line A represents the time, and the line H the intensity, a complete cycle being formed from C, D, F, then through F, E, C, and so on.Fig. 112. Alternating Polarity Lines
It is now necessary to apply these principles in the construction of an alternating-current machine. Fig. 113 is a diagram representing the various elements, and the circuiting.Fig. 113. Alternating Current Dynamo
Let A represent the ring or frame containing the inwardly projecting field magnet cores (B). C is the shaft on which the armature revolves, and this carries the wheel (D), which has as many radially disposed magnet cores (E) as there are of the field magnet cores (B).
The shaft (C) also carries two pulleys with rings thereon. One of these rings (F) is for one end of the armature winding, and the other ring (G) for the other end of the armature wire.
The winding is as follows: One wire, as at H, is first coiled around one magnet core, the turnings being to the right. The outlet terminal of this wire is then carried to the next magnet core and wound around that, in the opposite direction, and so on, so that the terminal of the wire is brought out, as at I, all of these wires being connected to binding posts (J, J'), to which, also, the working circuits are attached.
The armature wires, in like manner, run from the ring (G) to one armature core, being wound from right to left, then to the next core, which is wound to the right, afterward to the next core, which is wound to the left, and so on, the final end of the wire being connected up with the other ring (F). The north (N) and the south (S) poles are indicated in the diagram.