This section is from the book "Arts & Crafts Magazine Vol1-2", by Hutchinson & Company.
After the design is well traced or drawn, begin on one of the side panels, and cut down a quarter of an inch, or a little less. Be careful to have the outline correct and the margin lines straight. Slope the outline inward with a flat gouge - that is, do not make vertical cuts. Be careful to have the background an even depth all around. Have the background carefully dug out, and left very smooth and level. Then cut out the eye of the leaf, and be sure to let the teeth overlap here; remove just enough to give the appearance of lapping over. Then take a fluter and begin at the tip of each lobe of a leaf and cut out hollows, which must meet below where they turn into the scroll. Then model the lobes of each leaf, using a flat gouge, the convex side being downward, for removing the wood toward the hollows, and use the concave side down for modelling toward swelling surfaces. Besides the rib, each lobe of a leaf has two other hollows, one on each side of the rib. These are to be modelled in the same way. The manner of treating the surfaces of the leaves is somewhat like the Roman.
The scrolls are to be modelled with a swelling surface, and after each leaf is correctly shaped the teeth must be cut properly. A chisel or flat gouge-is to be used. In notching the leaves, be sure to have the notches point toward the apex of the leaf or apex of the lobe. Fit the curved tools you use to the outline of the leaf, between the notches. Round the surfaces slightly from the outlines of the leaves inward, making the surfaces convex. When this is done, take a veining tool and put accenting lines, similar to the veins but not so long or deep, from the junction of every two teeth toward the centre of the leaf. Carve the side panels first. After the door panels are traced, take a small veining tool and block out the outline of the leaves, and block out the background a quarter of an inch deep, or the same as the side panels. Commence at the base of the ornament and work upward. Where the leaves overlap, scoop out the concave parts. Be careful not to take out too much on the paits that are to be left in highest relief, nor from the tips of the leaves. Do not finish up as you go, but do the work in stages. Be sure not to have the ornament look as if it were glued on, but let the parts die away into the background delicately and gracefully. It is nearly impossible to describe on paper just the exact and delicate treatment required on a Renaissance design, but 1 trust that those who attempt this have also done some of the preceding ones of the series - in fact, that is almost a necessary preparation. The objects have grown more elaborate each month, as has probably been noticed, because they belong to a progressive series.
Oak will be a suitable wood, but mahogany is always satisfactory. Again, cherry is handsome and of rich colour, and even a soft wood can be used, and painted white and enamelled. Do not put any gilding on it.
The next design will also be in the Renaissance style, but will show still more delicate treatment. The tendency of amateurs is to make altogether too elaborate attempts; so great care has been taken in this series to progress gradually and slowly, thus enabling the pupil to understand his materials and tools, and so command the ready use of them.
A section, drawn to one-third scale, is shown with the full-size drawings given in the supplement; it indicates the relief of the different portions of the design. In finishing, oil can be used - linseed-oil - or beeswax and turpentine, according to the colour or style preferred by the carver.
Karl von Rydingsvard.
carved wood mirror frame.
(Designed and executed by Harry Fieldhouse, Huddersfield School of Art.)
If you want to know anything, don't be ashamed to ask it. The time was when the greatest of artists had to be taught by others.
By Jean Inglis
By W. M. Wunsch
Pyrogravure, or "Poker-work."
The Evolution of Pyrogravure.
WE have it on the authority of no less eminent a critic than Philip Hamerton, that Pyrogravure (i.e., writing in fire) is " a complete artist's process, full of technical qualities and satisfactions." The red-hot kitchen poker is popularly supposed to be the chief tool employed for this favourite method of decoration, and the crude specimens of work shown by the average novice would certainly seem to warrant the impression. That homely implement no doubt originally was used for the purpose - and that not so very long ago - but it has been generally discarded for a more adequate and effective means