While the book is in the press the end papers can be made, and the boards cut and lined. The end papers consist of one coloured piece and one plain, each double the size of the book. They must be carefully folded in two, and one half of the plain paper must be pasted carefully to one half of the coloured paper.

When dry, another piece of plain paper of the same size as before is folded in two, and must be carefully joined to the plain side of the end paper by pasting it along the back. The paste should only cover about an eighth of an inch. To insure that only this strip receives any paste the best plan is to cover the rest of the paper with a waste piece whilst the pasting brush is at work.

The end papers, thus made ready, must be placed under a weight to dry.

Now the millboards for the cover may be prepared. First cut them out roughly to the size of the book, then trim them with the shears; finally,. cut all the edges perfectly squarely in the special cutting press. A piece of waste millboard must support the piece, when about to be cut, against the knife.

Figs. 9, 10.   String knotted round sewing keys.

Figs. 9, 10. - String knotted round sewing keys.

Before cutting, the knife in the "plough" must be accurately adjusted. The plough is held by the handle with the right hand and by the screw with the left, and is screwed up until the knife just touches the millboard, when it is run backwards and forwards on the press.

Every edge, when cut, must be rubbed with a folder, to be smoothed. Then a piece of paper, with one edge straight, must be carefully pasted on to the board, the straight edge of the paper turning over one of the long, straight edges of the board and stretching about a quarter of an inch on the other side. It must be rubbed down well with a folding stick and given a nip (between two tins) in the press; for it is very important that the paper sticks well all over.

Fig. 11.   Kettle stitch.

Fig. 11. - Kettle-stitch.

By this time, probably, the sections may be taken out of the press and arranged in their proper order. The back and top edges are carefully squared by the process of banging them firmly and gently, and the book is placed carefully in the lying press, back upwards.

Design for Book cover: Conventional Flower and Leaf,

Design for Book-cover: Conventional Flower and Leaf, which may be very effectively carried out with flowers, in two shades of blue, and leaves, in various shades of green, inlaid on a dull green Levant morocco ground. Part of the background is filled in with delicate gold dotting.

Now preparations must be made for sewing the back. First of all, two lines must be marked across the back with a pencil, one about a quarter of an inch from the top, and one about half an inch from the bottom, to show where the kettle-stitches are to come. Then, with a pair of compasses, five lines must be marked between these two, which show where the strings are to come, on which the book is sewn.

With a saw cuts must be made along the inner lines, just deep enough to hold the string, and the outer lines must be cut about half as deeply as the inner ones, as they will have to hold only thread.

Now the back must be oversewn with fine thread, or, if the paper is thin, with silk. Taking care not to crease the paper, a start is made with a double stitch just within the outer saw-mark, continuing over and down the back, with two or three stitches between each mark, ending with a double stitch, as knots damage the paper. The stitches must not enter the paper to a depth of more than an eighth of an inch, they must not be placed too close to the saw-marks, and they must take in all the pages of the section.

It is advisable, by the way, before sewing to paste a common piece of paper loosely on to the two outside sections, as a protection until the end papers proper are in place.

The special sewing press is now put into opera tion. Five loops of string are tied along the top bar, and the sewing strings are knotted to the loops. The knot is made by passing the end of the string through the loop from right to left, then round and back through the loop from left to right.

Now to fasten the sewing strings a! the bottom. This is accomplished by the help of a special key in this way: Holding the round end of the key in the right hand, the left hand passes the string under the key from left to right.

To ascertain the correct length for the string, pull it just tight enough to allow the key now to pass under the bed of the sewing press. Then the end of the string is brought over to the left, and the key turned completely over with the main string between the "fork." This is then held firmly and pushed through the opening in the sewing press, with the round end towards the front.

Laying the book Mat on the [Mess, with its back towards the strings, these are then pushed along until they correspond to the marks. Next, all the book, except the bottom section, is lifted up, turned right over with the fore-edges towards the operator, .ind put down within easy reach.

The section that remains is opened at the middle and held open with the left hand, while the thread and needle are passed through the kettle-stitch on the right, leaving a short length of thread, and out at the second hole, round the first string, in at the same hole, out at the next and round the second stringz and so on until the needle comes out at the end hole on the left.

Then that section is shut down, and the next one is put on in the same way-; only in this case the needle goes in at the left end and conies out at the right, where the thread is tied to the end that projects from the first kettle-stitch.

The next section is now laid on, and the process repeated until the kettle-stitch on the left is reached, when the needle is passed between the two sections underneath, and drawn out with the thread behind it, to form a knot. (The thread should be pulled fairly tight before making the kettle-stitch.) The same operation is repeated at the end of every section, until finally a double knot completes the sew iug.

Care must be taken to keep the sections entirely even; it is advisable to tap them with a flat stick during the sewing.

The strings are now cut off about two inches from the book on either side, and are frayed out by untwisting the strands. These frayed strings are known as "slips."

Now the end-papers must be stuck on. The outside white paper is, first of all, turned right back over the coloured one to form a protecting leaf, and a narrow edge of paste is brushed along the back of the second white paper, which is then placed on the book and pressed down, the old protecting leaf having first been removed. Now the whole book must be pressed under a weight. The kettle-stitches must be protected by small pads of paper to make the ends or "slips" stick firmly

With this operation ends the first stage of the "forwarding" process. If every detail that has been described so far has been carried out with care precision, the work, by now, will be in a very promising state.

E. De Rheims. (to be continued.)