Either for repousse work or chasing this would be suitable. The relief in raising should be slight, otherwise the work would look " lumpy." The fruit should be carefully modelled and undercut, and great care should be taken to preserve the flow of the lines. The border should be traced in and the ground punched to the edges.


The design is very suitable either for simple work in veining, with the background punched, or low relief. If treated for the former, the outline should be cut in either with a V tool or veiner, and then, without cutting out the ground, punch down with a suitable stamp. This is a splendid way to practise the use of the above-named tools in making long cuts.


As an example of plain tooling and punched ground, this design will prove very useful. It could be adapted to many purposes, and is easily worked. If the design is required to be raised, proceed according to the directions given for the treatment in metalwork. A. J. H.

The Leather Work Design by Ellen Sparks.

This may be either cut and the background punched back, or the design may be raised from the back: the leaves would particularly lend themselves to the latter treatment. If used as a frame for a clock or photograph, the leather would have to be mounted on wood, which could either be squared, or cut with a fret-saw to follow the outline of the leather.

For Pyrogravure

The design would also look well if "pokered" on leather. In outlining the design on leather, great care must be taken to keep the point comparatively cool, and the strokes must be put in with a light, sweeping touch. The slightest halt while the point is in contact with the material may burn a hole. For the shading, an attachment sold for the purpose should be used. If the work is "pokered" before the leather is mounted on the wood, it must be well stretched on a board with pins, otherwise the heat will draw it up. Light brown calf is the easiest to work on. Staining, in this case, would be very effective, but the colours must be subdued.