1. (a) What is a metal? (b) What is metallurgy?

2. Tabulate the comparative reducibilities of the metals.

3. What is meant by reducibility?

4. State and discuss briefly the various physical properties of interest in metallurgy.

5. (a) What is the importance of sampling? (b) Describe a method for getting a proper sample.

6. State and describe the various processes used in ore dressing.

7. Tabulate the various styles of furnaces used in metallurgy.

8. List the refractories used in furnace linings.

9. Sketch and indicate the essential features of an iron blast furnace.

10. Describe the operation of such a furnace.

11. Discuss the chemical and physical properties of pig iron.

12. Sketch and indicate the essential lines of the iron carbon equilibrium diagram. Define each term used.

13. Describe the different kinds of cast iron.

14. What is wrought iron? How made?

15. Describe and sketch the Bessemer converter.

16. Describe briefly its operation.

17. Describe and sketch the essential features of an open-hearth furnace.

18. Describe briefly its operation.

19. Compare Bessemer and open-hearth steels.

20. (a) What are the defects in ingots? How are these remedied? (b) State the different mechanical treatments applied to steel, (c) Describe each briefly.

21. Discuss the effect of heat treatment on steel.

22. Tabulate the approximate chemical composition of the various forms of iron and steel.

23. (a) What are the methods of reducing copper ores? (b) Describe each briefly.

24. How and why is copper refined?

25. Discuss briefly the smelting of lead.

26. Describe the methods of refining lead.

27. (a) What are the properties of zinc? (b) How is sine ore wasted? (c) Describe briefly the zinc distillation process.

28. Outline briefly the metallurgy of gold.

29. What is the Hall process of aluminum reduction?

30. List and describe briefly the alloying elements. What are their influences?