Of Green

This is a mixture of blue and yellow, the shade varying according to the prevalence of either ingredient. The cloth is generally first dyed blue, and then immersed in a yellow bath; but when sulphate of indigo is employed, it is usual to mix the ingredients together, and dye the cloth at once.

Of Violet, Purple, and Lilac. - These are all mixtures of blue and red, and depend upon the different shade produced by the proportion of one colour to the other. Wool, cotton, and linen, are first dyed blue; the two last are then galled, and soaked in a decoction of logwood, or of green sulphate of iron , they are then dyed scarlet in the usual manner: by means, however, of cochineal, mixed with sulphate of indigo, the process may be performed at once. Silk is first dyed crimson with cochineal, and then dipped in the indigo vat.

Of Orange

This is a mixture of yellow and red. A remarkable difference exists in the affinity of various substances for colouring matter, animal substances generally taking the dye much more readily than those of vegetable composition - thus wool and silk are more easily dyed than cotton and linen; the latter article, indeed, has so slight an affinity for the dye that it is extremely difficult to impart to it a bright and permanent colour. The processes and manipulations in dying are few and simple, and require principally a good eye to judge accurately of the gradations of the tints, and care and attention in preparing the ingredients, and in maintaining the baths at a proper temperature.

Mr. J. Hall, of Ordsall, near Manchester, has recently obtained a patent for an apparatus, shown in the engraving on the following page, the object of which is to cause the goods to be exposed to the action of the liquor in the dye vat in a more equal manner than is done in the ordinary method. In the dye vat a are placed six small rollers, 1 to 6, one at each corner, and two near the middle, on the same line with 1 and 4. At about half the depth of the vat are placed two large rollers b and c, about one foot asunder; one end of each of the axes of these rollers comes through a stuffing-box, and on the axis of b is placed a cog-wheel, which is connected with the axis by a pin passing through it that can be withdrawn at pleasure; on the axis of c is a similar wheel gearing into b, and may be thrown out of gear when required by the lever d. On the top of the vat is the roller e, whose axis turns in bearings fixed in each side of the vats; and upon this roller another roller f rests, which can only move in a vertical direction, its axis being square, and confined by guides g.

At one end of the vat is a roller h, supported in two upright forks, and having a small wheel on its axis; another wheel k on a short axis is placed between the last mentioned wheel and the wheel and the axis of c, and gears into each. The roller h may be lifted out of the forks by the lever f. To the roller c is fastened a piece of cloth of the width of the goods to be dyed; this cloth passes over the rollers 6 and 1, under 2 and 3, and over 4: a similar piece of cloth is wound round the roller b, the end of which is brought up and hung over the roller 5. The cloth or web to be dyed is attached by a long skewer to the cloth of c, hanging over the roller 4: the wheel b being now -unpinned, and set in motion by a band wheel, or other means, the web is wound upon c, passing under the roller, as before described, until the outer end arrives at the roller 4, when it is attached to the cloth of b by a skewer, and the wheel turned until the cloth on b is unwound. The wheel on c is next thrown out of gear, and that on the axis of b is pinned to its axis, when the wheel being again set in motion, the cloth is unwound from c and wound upon b; and it is thus wound alternately upon each of the rollers b and c, until it is deemed sufficiently dyed.

It must then be wound upon the roller b, and the cloth, being detached from the web c, is passed between the rollers e and f, and made fast to the roller k. The wheel on b is then unpinned, and being set in motion, turns h by means of the wheel on c, and the small wheel k; the piece is thus wound upon the roller h, and deprived of a great portion of moisture by the pressure of the rollers e f. When the end appears above the roller 5, the skewer attaching it to the cloth of b is withdrawn, and the roller h is lifted out of the forks by the lever l, and replaced by a similar one.

Of Orange 430