When it is required to close the shutter, the spring (which is close to the window) is to be pressed down to allow the flap B to come back over it; and when shut it presents the appearance shown in Fig. 1. These hinges are manufactured at only sixpence per pair more than the common sort (the arc being fixed to only the lower one of a pair), and as the troublesome turnbuckle is thereby superseded, the improvement cannot be considered as enhancing the expense.

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Fig. 1.

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By the ordinary method of hanging doors to libraries, the hanging-stiles are fixed to the vertical partitions of the shelves, and being necessarily of a greater width than the latter, the books behind them cannot be got out without displacing those adjoining. To remedy this inconvenience, the following exceedingly simple and effectual contrivance has been lately adopted by Mr. Nettlefold, of Holborn. a is a brass plate, which is screwed to an upright partition; b b are two projecting parts (cast in one piece with a) with the extremities rounded off", and perforated to receive the centre pin, which passes alike through them and the joint of the common butt-hinge c. To the flaps of the latter are screwed the doors d and e, portions of which are only brought into view to save room. It will be observed that the door e lays back quite level with the (supposed) shelves, and that the door d folds close against e, so as to lie parallel with it, and quite out of the way. This being the case, as represented in the figure, it is equally obvious that when the door d is turned back the contrary way, both doors are thereby shut, and lie quite flush and close; and that the door e may then in like manner be folded over d.

The greatest facilities are thus afforded by a single hinge instead of (wo hinges, and without the necessity of any additional hanging stile.

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Whitechurch's patent hinge, for enabling doors and windows to be opened either on the right or left hand, from its utility and convenience, besides the ingenuity of the contrivance, deserves particular notice. It is equally applicable to window-sashes, book-cases, and the show-cases of shops; but its advantages will be most conspicuous in packets, steam-boats, and those situations in particular where the utmost convenience in a small compass is the object of study. The engraving on the following page represents the application of the invention to the sash windows of houses; and its chief utility in these consists in the facility afforded in cleaning that part of the window in perfect safety which has heretofore been done at considerable personal peril, and in very many instances has caused fatal accidents. Its application to a door is, in principle, the same as to a sash thus made (which opens on either side like a door); and our description of the hinges and fastenings therefore will, in a great measure, apply to both, a represents the lower sash, suspended over pulleys by lines and weights in the usual manner.

To open the upper sash b, a false or movable sill is taken out from the lower part of the sash-frame, which enables the sash a to descend lower in the frame, and the upper sash, which was previously behind it (or deeper in the frame) to pass over it, and to swing on its hinges on either side. At c c c is a pair of long double acting hinges, shown connected on one side of the window, and separated on the side where the window is open. A pair of these hinges is shown shut up and complete by the distinct figure d. At e e e is shown a pair of small auxiliary hinges; and a single hinge of the kind at the separate figure f shows their precise construction. A brass bolt g is fixed on the lower stile of the sash, and extending its whole length; about two inches from the end of the bolt it is jointed, so that when either end is shot into its mortice, it acts as a kind of support, and as a centre for the lower part of the sash to turn upon, h h exhibit two small latches for securing or opening the sash on either side. Now when the window is opened on that side which is at present closed, exactly the same appearances will be presented, only on the opposite side. It is therefore clear that the hinges must alternately separate and connect themselves at the joints.

The manner in which this is done will be partly understood by reference to the separate figure f, where each flap of the small secondary hinges is shown apart, as also their connecting themselves by the jointed parts of one flap hooking into another. The long hinges used in the upper part are, however, of a more complex nature, and it is very difficult to give an intelligible description of them without the aid of several more figures, giving different views of their parts, which would occupy too much of our space. Any person, however, who may be desirous of investigating their principles and mode of action, will, we doubt not, have every facility afforded them at the office of the patentees. In applying the invention to a room-door, the arrangement is somewhat different; the long hinges are placed at top as in the case of the window-sash, and the small auxiliary hinges are fixed near to the bottom. On the middle stile of the door, the bolt, or locking bar, is situated, which is either Jet in flush with the door, or lies in a mortice passing from one side to the other, and is consequently entirely out of sight.

A mortice lock is placed on each side of the door, for opening and shutting it by means of the knobs, and the bolt springs to and fastens the door itself, when shut in the ordinary way; and when it is required to open the door the contrary way to that which it was the last time, an extra half-turn of the knob throws back the bolt, and locks the opposite side; it is thus opened on either side instantaneously, and is hung on the opposite side at the same moment with never-failing security. The door is, in fact, more securely hung, is better supported, and, consequently, turns on its hinges with greater ease and smoothness. It cannot be taken off its hinges without the aid of a turn screw, as in other doors.

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