Bismuth is accompanied by native silver, galena, some other metals, and earthy substances. In conducting the analysis, previous roasting is not requisite. The low degree of heat at which bismuth is fusible renders the reduction of the ores of this metal a very simple process. In the large way, the ores were formerly reduced merely by heating them along with burning fuel; sometimes a shallow hole was made in the ground, and filled loosely with pieces of wood and bushes, and after the fire was Kindled, the ore, reduced to small pieces, was thrown in; sometimes the stump of a hollow pine tree was filled with wood and ore alternately, and set on fire, the bismuth separated from its matrix, and collected in a mass at the bottom; the scarcity of wood has, however, put an end to these rude and extravagant methods, and the ores of bismuth are now reduced in a common reverberatory furnace, the bed of which is lined with charcoal, whence the melted metal is removed in iron ladles, and cast into masses weighing twenty or thirty pounds, in which state it is brought to market.