29th Aug. 1844. W. Newton, Improvements in the means of preventing shocks, or accidents, on railways, or in lessening the dangerous effects arising therefrom.

22d Oct. 1844. J. Nasmyth and C. May. Improvements in working atmospheric railways, and in machinery for constructing the apparatus employed therein.

9th Nov. 1844. W. Prosser. Improvements in the construction of roads, and in carriages to run thereon. - Described at page 469.

The atmospheric main is connected with two cylindrical vessels, placed vertically, and which communicate alternately, with a steam boiler, and with a condenser, in which a jet of water is maintained; whereby a vacuum is produced in each cylinder in succession, (as in Savery's steam engine,) and the air rushing from the atmospheric main into the cylinders; becomes rarefied until the vacuum in the main is equal to that in the cylinders.

Another improvement consists in forcing down the brakes by pneumatic pressure.

14th Nov. 1844. J. Farrell. Certain improvements in machinery, whereby carriages may be impelled on railways, and tramways, by means of stationary engines or other power, including certain apparatus connected with the carriages to run on same. - Described at page 516.

18th Dec. 1844. W. Prosser. and J. Baptiste. Improvements in working atmospheric railwaye.

16th Jan. 1845. H. A. Dubern. Improvements in atmospheric railways.

\6th Jan. 1845, H. Lacey and G. W. Buck. New method for manufacture of, and method for sustaining, the rails of railways.

Application of wrought iron to sustain the rails of railways, in lieu of the wooden sleepers, or of the stone blocks at present employed.

10th Feb. 1845. R. B. Longridge. Improved locomotive engine.

10th Feb. 1845. F. H. Maberly. Certain improvements in machinery, or the apparatus for stopping or retarding railway or other carriages, applicable also for these purposes in regard to other engines or wheels.

13th March, 1845. Thomas Dunn. Certain improvements in, or applicable to, turn-tables, to be used on or in connexion with railways.

7th April, 1845. E. Bury. Certain improvements in locomotive engines, carriages, or waggons running upon railways, or common roads, for the prevention of accidents.

10th April, 1845. E. Galloway. Improvements in propelling railway carriages.

Modification of Saxton's differential pullies, with a view to prevent the chafing of the rope - employment of wire rope, and an improved mode of attaching the drag carriage.

14th April, 1845 J. C. Hadden. Improvement in preparing sleepers, chairs, and spikes, and constructing wheels for railways.

10th May, 1845. W. Prosser and J. Brett. Improvements in railways, and in propelling railway carriages.

10th May, 1845. J. M. Chapman. Improvements in the manufacture of rails and other parts of railways.

17th May, 1845. A. Mac Dougall. Improvements in the method of working atmospheric railways.

5th June, 1845. Palmer. Improvements in working atmospheric railways, and in lubricating railway and other machinery.

23d June, 1845. Thomas Clarke, and John Varley. Improvement on the atmospheric system of .propulsion, which is also applicable to other motive purposes.

23d June, 1845. R. Griffiths, H. G. Bovill, and G. Hennet. Improvements in the construction of parts of apparatus used for propelling carriages and vessels by the atmosphere; and improvements in propelling carriages and vessels by atmospheric pressure.

25th June, 1845. J Zambaux. improvements in atmospheric railways.

25th June, 1845. W. S. Ward. Improvements in exhausting air from tubes or vessels, for the purpose of working atmospheric railways.

3d July, 1845. John Hopkins. Certain improvements on rails, and trains for railroads, and tramways.

3d July, 1845. F. Walker and G. Mills. Certain improvements in springs and elastic power, as applicable to railway carriages and other vehicles, and to other articles and purposes in which springs, or elastic power, are now used.

Employment of air confined in bags to serve as springs to carriages, and employing ammoniacal gas as a motive power.

3d July, 1845. W. Newton. Certain improvements in railways, and in the means of propelling carriages. - Described at page 507.

8th July, 1845. Jacob Brett. Improvements in propelling carriages on railways and other roads and ways.

A hollow flat rail placed edgeways, extends the whole length of the line between the rails for the carriage wheels, and communicates by branch pipes at suitable distances with the pneumatic main, in which the air is highly coin-pressed by means of air pumps, worked by stationary engines. The flat rail is enveloped in an air-tight bag, and the compressed air in the rail distending the bag, causes it to press upon two rollers attached to the leading carriage, and thus impels the train. - See Keene and Nickel's invention, page 505.

A second improvement consists of a suspension railway worked by the same means.

12th July, 1845. J. S. Templeton. Impelling carriages on railways. A modification of one of Mr. Pinkus's plans, in which locomotive engines are worked by communication with a pneumatic main, in which the air is either rarefied or highly compressed by means of air pumps worked by stationary engines.

I2lh July, 1845. J. Malcomson. Improvements in apparatus used for propelling carriages on roads, and vessels on inland waters, when employing atmospheric pressure.

A close tube is laid along a line of railway, and a vacuum is maintained in it throughout its entire length, by the simultaneous action of all the stationary engines fixed along the line: the close tube communicates with the several sections of the valved atmospheric main, by means of branch pipes, furnished with valves, by opening which in succession a vacuum is created in advance of the piston, as it enters the different sections of the main.