A series of hollow pistons, communicating with a pneumatic main, are placed midway between the rails at stated distances throughout the line, and attached to the train is a tube (named the locomotive tube), having on the under side a slit running the whole length of the tube, and at each end of the tube is a hinged valve. In the passage of the train, the tube receives within it the fixed pistons in succession, and the compressed air rushing through the pistons and impinging on the hanging valve at the end of the tube impels the train.
29th July, 1845. G. Bead on. Improvements in propelling vessels and land carriages in raising and drawing off water for driving machinery, which means of raising and drawing off water are applicable to other useful purposes.
30th July, 1845. E. Coleman. Improvements applicable to the moving of locomotive engines on inclined planes of railway.
Ascending inclines by means of an archimedean screw, attached to the locomotive, and working into a line of rollers, laid down midway between the rails. The screw is driven by bevelled geer, fixed on the shaft of the driving wheels, and on the axis of the screw.
3lst July, 1845. J. Quick and H. Austin. Improvements in the construction and working of atmospheric railways.
1. Forming the tubes composing the atmospheric main of two or more longitudinal pieces, connected together by elastic joints, so as to allow the pipe to expand for the passage of the piston arm, and to close afterwards by the pressure of the atmosphere.
2. Working lines with numerous intermediate stations (as the Blackwall railway) by means of a close tube in which a vacuum is constantly maintained by the engines, and which communicates with the atmospheric mains by branch pipes fitted with valves.
3. An arrangement for making a smaller number of fixed engines suffice.
4. An expanding piston to suit enlargements of main, where greater power is required.
7th Aug. 1845. H. Smith. Improvements in the manufacture of wheels for railways, and in springs for railways and other carriages, and in axle-guards far railway carriages.
The principle of these improvements consists in a method of welding, forming, and fixing the tyres of wheels; and of making naves of wrought iron; of bending the plates of springs to the required shape, and in sawing the axle-guards out of plates of iron, brought to a red heat.
7 th Aug. 1845. Emanuel Henry. Improvements in atmospheric railways.
The slit in the atmospheric tube is formed in the side of the tube, and the longitudinal valve is closed by the pressure of a long bag or hose, inflated with air and protected by a shield of wrought iron bolted to the tube.
The vacuum in the tube is produced by first, filling with water large close reservoirs, connected with the tube by pipes and valves, and the opening the communication between the two, and allowing the water to run off.
2d Oct. 1845. J. R. Hill. Certain improvements in atmospheric propulsion applicable to water as well as land carriages.
6th Oct. 1845. M. Poole. Improvements in rails for railways.
6th Oct. 1845. T. R. Crampton. Improvements in locomotive engines and railways.
10th Oct. 1845. F. Harlow. Improvements in atmospheric railways.
23d Oct. 1845. T. Worsdell. Certain improvements in apparatus to be attached to, and employed in connexion with, railway carriages.
23d Oct. 1845. Fuller. Improvements in the construction of railway carriages.
31st Oct. 1845. R. W. Brandling. Improvements in railways and railway carriages, for the security and convenience of the public.
31st Oct. 1845. C. H.Collins. Improvements in atmospheric railways.
3lst Oct. 1845. D.Crawford. Improved means of, or machinery for, arresting the progress of railway carriages and trains.
31st Oct. 1845. J. Forsyth. Certain improvements in signals, or in the method of giving signals, which are applicable to the working of railways, and which are also applicable to maritime purposes, and for certain improvements in working of railways.
11th Nov. 1845. B. Donkin. Improvements on wheels, as applicable to railway carriages, and on the mechanical contrivances by which railway carriages are made to cross from one line to another line, or on to what are generally called "sidings."
11th Nov. 1845. G. H. Dutton. Certain improvements in conveying intelligence from one part of a railway train to another.
18th Nov. 1845. J. O. Ward and W. Hillis. Improvements inthe construction of railway, and in machinery and apparatus for working carriages.
18th Nov. 1845. C. Vaux. Improvements in apparatus or machinery for preventing accidents to carriages and passengers on railways, part of which improvements are applicable to save lives and property in other places.
18th Nov. 1845. H. B. Powell. For certain improvements in carriages to be used on rail and other roads.
20th Nov. 1845. Ernest Edge. For certain improvements applicable to the wheels and axles of engines, tenders, carriages, and waggons, to be used upon railways.
4th Dec. 1845. Robert Rettie. For an improved method of signalizing or telegraphing on sea or land, preventing collision at sea, and giving signals of distress, by improved burners with glasses coloured and signalcards, applicable to railways in all the various departments, as well as preventing of accidents, when the train is at full speed; also the diurnal for railways, towns, villages, etc.
6th Dec. 1845. J. R. Johnson. For improvements in the materials employed in constructing and working atmospheric railways.
20th Dec. 1845. Taylor and Conder. Improvements in propelling on railways - Described at page 509.
30th Dec. 1845. T.Swinburne. For improvements in railways, and in the means of propelling and carrying thereon.
6th Jan. 1846. C. H. Greenhow. For improvement in the construction of railways and railway carriages.
6th Jan. 1846. J. R. Bozek. For improvements in the construction and application of railroad carriage wheels.
13th Jan. 1846. R. B. Longridge. For an improved locomotive engine.
20lh Jan. 1846. R. A. Brooman. For certain improvements in railway and common road carriages.
22dJan. 1846. C.Wheeler. Certain improvements in the construction and working of railways.
22d Jan. 1846. F. W. Campin. Certain improvements in obtaining and applying motive power.
31st Jan. 1S46. M. Rimington. Certain improvements in obtaining and applying motive power.
3\st Jan. 1846. A. Etienne. Improvements in the construction of railways, railway carriages, and in the means of preventing accidents on railways.
3d Feb. 1846. E. Chesshire. Improvements in apparatus to be applied to railway carriages, to reduce the prejudicial effects of collisions to passengers in railway carriages.
3d Feb. 1846 S. Brown. Improvements in gas engines, and propelling carriages.
11th Feb. 1846. Clark, Freeman, and another. Improvements in obtaining and applying motive power. .
11th Feb. 1846. G. Stephenson. An improvement in locomotive steam engines.
16th Feb. 1846. Nasmyth. Improvements in engines, or machines for obtaining and applying motive power.
19lh Feb. 1846. R. Nisbet. Improvements in locomotive engines.
27th Feb. 1846. J. S. Templeton. Improvements in propelling carriages on railways, and improvements in propelling vessels.
11th March, 1846. W. Naime. For a new mode or new modes of propelling carriages along railways.
11th March, 1846. H. Austin. Improvements in the construction of railways and railway carriages.
11th March, 1846. H. Bovill and another. Improvements in apparatus applicable to the working of atmospheric and other railways, canals and mines, and improvements in transmitting gas for the purpose of lighting railways.
11th March, 1846. J. Banfield. Improvements in making signals and communications on railways and between railways, engines, carriages, and trains, which are also applicable to other localities.
23d March, 1846. J. H. Gandell and another. Improvements in the construction of, and in the mode of opening and closing of, moveable bridges or arches, for the purpose of carrying railways, tramways, or other roads, across canals, locks, docks or other open cuttings.
25th March, 1846. T. Pope. Improvements in apparatus for moving railway carriages on to railways, and in machinery for lifting or moving heavy bodies.
18th April, 1846. E. Galloway. Improvements in locomotive engines.
7th April, 1846. T. Melling. Improvements in marine stationary and locomotive engines.
28th April, 1846. C. de Bergue. Improvements in atmospheric railways.
22d May, 1846. H. G. Hulme. Improvements in the construction of railways, and in the carriages to be used thereon.
26th May, 1846. E. A. Cowper. Improvements in the manufacture of railway chairs.
4th June, 1846. J.C.Robertson. Improvements in railways and railway carriages.
17th June, 1846. W. Cormack. Improvements in obtaining motive power.
10th Dec. 1846. T. V. Allier. For improvements in brakes or machinery for stopping or retarding carriages.