Jessop's Chairs and Pedestals. - Stephenson's patent Chairs and Fastenings. - Scrivenor's patent wrought-iron Chairs. - Reynold's patent continuous Hearing-rails and Sleepers. - Parkins's patent Vitrified Sleepers. - Permanent way of the Great Western Railway. - Permanent way of the South Eastern Railway. - Brighton and Hastings permanent way. - Orsi's patent Chairs and Sleepers. - Switches. - Curtis's patent Switches. -Turntables. - Hancock's patent Turntable. - Mallett's' hydrostatic Turntable. - The broad and narrow Gauges. - Parliamentary Commission thereon. - Inconvenience of breaks - as applied to Passengers - to Merchandize - and to Troops. - Expedient of Telescopic Axles. - Loaded waggons on Trucks. - Shifting on Wheeled Platforms. - Intermediate Rails. - Policy of uniformity of Gauge. - Comparative safety of different. - Accommodation and convenience. - The best adapted for speed. - Accidents on each. - Economy of each. - Deductions from the evidence. - Recommendations to Parliament. - Water Crane. - Cleansing Rails. - Curtis's Screw Jack. - Cost of various Railways per Mile.
The general nature and construction of Railways having been explained and illustrated in the previous Section, we proceed, in this division of our subject, to give a more enlarged and precise description of their constituent parts; especially as relates to the improvements in such as have been devised since the opening of the Manchester and Liyerpool Railway.
We shall commence with a brief account of the rails, chairs, and sleepers used by Mr. Stephenson in the formation of the Manchester and Liverpool Line, which was omitted in our account of that Railway.
The annexed cut shows a transverse section of the rail r, which has a lateral rib on one side, fitting into a corresponding cavity made in the cast-iron chair a. On the opposite side of each chair another cavity is cast, to receive an iron key b, wedge-formed, which, pressing against the side of the rail, forces the projecting rib into the cavity on the opposite side, and locks the bar into its required position.
A form slightly varying from the foregoing was introduced by Mr. Losh as shown in the annexed cut. In this the projections are rolled on both sides of the bar; one of these projections enters the cavity in the chair, ike the former. On the other cheek of the chair is cast a longitudinal notch for receiving double key wedges as shown; which act at the same time upon the upper part of the projection on the rail to force it down upon the chair and against the side of the rail to steady it, and force the projection on the other side of the rail into the cavity. By this mode of keying it was considered, that if the rail worked loose upon the chair, by driving the key, it could be tightened.