This section is from the book "Spons' Mechanics' Own Book: A Manual For Handicraftsmen And Amateurs", by Edward Spon. Also available from Amazon: Spons' Mechanics' Own Book.
Ordinary room doors are of 2 kinds, distinguished as "ledged" and "panelled." The former are easier to make, heavier, and stronger, but have a commonplace appearance. Every kind of door requires a wooden frame occupying the margin of the space to be closed, and into which the door may shut as closely as possible. If the doorway be situated in a wooden structure, the timbers of this structure will be arranged to form the door-frame; in other case, the frame must be made and secured in place ready for receiving the door. The essential parts of the frame are, as seen in Fig. 674, a lintel a, 2 jambs b, and a sill c; the bottom ends of the jambs are mortised into the sill.
When the doorway is in a wooden structure the top ends of the jambs may also be mortised into the lintel; but when the frame has to be built into a brick wall, the lintel and jambs are usually housed or halved into each other and made to project somewhat, as shown. The door represented in the figure is a kind of ledge door, fitting closely into the space enclosed by the frame a,b,c\ the inner side is shown, in which the latch and hinges should be fastened. On opposite faces of the jambs and on the under side of the lintel a fillet of wood is nailed in such a position as to serve as a stop against which the door may shut, leaving its outside face flush with the frame; and when hanging the door, care should be taken to support it off the sill by a thin strip of wood, so as to ensure its moving free of the sill when opened and closed. Hinges and latches are chosen according to the weight and finish of the door.
Ledged doors of several kinds are shown in Fig. 675. The simplest and most easily made is A, consisting only of the requisite number of 1-in. to 2-in. boards a, placed quite close together (tongued and grooved in better work) and held by the ledges b, to which they are fastened by clasp nails. In B, the vertical boards a are secured to ledges b as before, but these ledges are strengthened by the diagonal braces c, the whole forming a ledged and braced door. C is a framed and ledged door, in which the upright boards a, of the same thickness as the frame, are tongued and grooved into the lintel b, sill c, and ledges d, while the lintel and sill are mortised and tenoned into the jambs e at the corners. D differs from C mainly in the introduction of the braces /.
The construction of a panelled door is illustrated in Fig. 676. a, b are termed long styles, c, d are short styles, e, f, g are the rails, and h, i, k. l are the panels. The pieces a, b, c, d, e, f, g constitute the framing, and are joined together by mortices and tenons cut right through in the case of the outside long styles, and not fitting too tightly. When the parts of the framing have been made and fitted, their inner faces are grooved by a plough plane about 1/2 in. deep and 3/8 in. wide, to receive the correspondingly bevelled edges of the panels. In better class doors, a beading is run round the edges of the panels to hide the joint and improve the appearance; when this is to be done, it is well not to fit the panels at all tightly into the framing, on account of the risk of splitting the latter. When no beading or moulding is going to be added, more accurate fitting is necessary in the panels. When the panels have been fitted to the grooves in the framing, and everything is properly adjusted, the pieces c, d, e, f, g are put together, glued and pegged securely; next the panels are slid in sideways, and finally the styles a, b are driven on to the projecting tenons, previously glued, and wedged from the outside edges.
When all is dry, the wedges are cut off, and the edges are planed smooth to fit the frame. The panels may be of very much thinner wood than the frame, thus securing lightness with solidity of appearance, and sufficient strength. Panelled doors are always hung with butt hinges let into little recesses on the frame side of the "hanging" style, as that is called which carries the hinges.
A sash door differs from an ordinary door in the frame being occupied wholly or in part by a window instead of wood. Light doors for cupboards, etc, may be made in a simple maimer by mortising and tenoning the styles and rails together, and cutting a rebate in their inner edge all round, into which thin boards can be dropped to serve as panels, and secured by small brads, with a bead or moulding run round to hide the edges.