This section is from the book "Spons' Mechanics' Own Book: A Manual For Handicraftsmen And Amateurs", by Edward Spon. Also available from Amazon: Spons' Mechanics' Own Book.
A wooden gate, the only kind to be considered here, consists of a framework, as a, b, c, d in Fig. 632, hinged or hung to a gate-post e, which is firmly secured in the ground, and catching on a latch attached to another gate-post at the opposite side of the opening. This framework is generally filled in with 3 horizontal bar3 /. To prevent the weight of the gate pulling it down at the end c, a diagonal brace g is added; for uniformity sake this is sometimes supplemented by a second brace h. The upright bar a of the frame is termed the hanging style, while c is the falling style; the bars b, d and the rails f are mortised at each end into the bars a, c.
Another form of field gate is shown in Fig. 633, where the diagonal stays a, b meet at the centre c. The top and bottom hinges are fixed as shown at d, e.
Fig. 634 illustrates a much heavier and more substantial form of gate. The hanging post a here needs struts b placed underground; the falling style c is strengthened by iron bands at top and bottom.
A garden wicket is represented in Fig. 635. The frame a, b, c, d and the diagonal stay e are mortised together. Through the top and bottom rails a, c and the stay e bars f of wood or iron are passed. The hingeing is effected by means of iron bands with looped ends secured to the top and bottom rails and resting on somewhat similar iron loops fixed in the post g; an iron rod dropped through all the loops completes the hinge.
Fig. 636 is a more pretentious garden gate. The usual frame a, b, c, d supports by 4 arms e a central ring f secured by pegged tenons, as shown. The spaces g, h, i, k, I are, best filled up by some lighter work. The 2 bottom ones k, I may have diagonal panelling while g, h, i may have wooden bars; or the whole may be fitted with ornamental iron castings.