This section is from the book "Spons' Mechanics' Own Book: A Manual For Handicraftsmen And Amateurs", by Edward Spon. Also available from Amazon: Spons' Mechanics' Own Book.
Recently have been introduced a number of methods of glazing not depending on putty, thereby simplifying the operation of fixing and replacing the glass, though probably in all cases also facilitating the operations of the burglar, which must limit their application for domestic purposes. They may be described in alphabetic order.
This is shown in Fig. 1367 : a, wooden core; b, oiled packing; c, zinc bar and capping. The glass d is clipped between the zinc bars with the intervention of the oiled packing.
This requires a specially prepared putty, and is illustrated in Figs. 1368, 1369: a, side slips fitting close on the edges of the glass b, and filled with a putty that will not dry nor harden; c, cap of zinc, copper or lead, with allowance for side slips to expand or contract with the glass; d, wooden or T-iron bar; e, head flanges folded down on glass b; f, chair for fixing bars to purlins g when required; h, bolt and out to secure lead flange inside at bottom; i, water gutter.
This plan is adapted for greenhouses and similar structures, entailing the use of special metallic sash bars. It is light, strong, watertight, free from drip, and durable.
This is essentially a malleable iron glazing bar sheathed in lead (Fig. 1370). The glass a rests upon the lead sheath b surrounding the iron bar c, and is held in place by a fold of the lead above. Condensed moisture collects in the gutter d.
This is a system of glazing with leaden bars, which may be described thus. Purlins about 2 to 3 ft. apart are placed over the rafters, which as in ordinary construction are i to 5 ft. apart. These purlins are grooved to receive the top edge of one square of glass, the bottom edge of the square above it projecting over it, and entirely covering it from the weather. On these purlins are placed lead bars of a stout I section running vertically; the recesses of these lead bars are filled with putty, into which the glass is bedded; the bars are screwed to the purlins at the bottom, and the core and bottom table are cut away and the top table turned down and nailed, forming a clip to hold up the glass. The woodwork, not covered by the lead bars, such as the ridge, end-rafters, etc, is flashed with thin sheet lead.
This system, Fig. 1371, consists of a series of sash bars constructed of sheet zinc, copper, or other metal, forming a double gutter on each sash bar for carrying off condensed moisture. The glass is held in position by folding down narrow flanges of sheet lead. The sash bars are fixed to the wooden or iron roof by shoes or clips, and the upper and lower edges of the glazing are protected by flashings of sheet lead or zinc, a is the glass; b, lead; c, metallic sash bar; d, internal gutter.
Fig. 1372 represents the "acme" system: a, glass; b, wooden purlin; c, horizontal bar with perforated channel to carry off condensed moisture from inside; d, vertical bar forming junction of 2 squares of glass. Fig. 1373 represents the "invincible" system: a, glass; b, capping; c, screw bolt and nut; d, washer; e, water channel; f, condensation gutters.
Fig. 1374 : a, upper square of glass; b, lower square of glass; c, metallic channel to convey condensed moisture from top to outside of under square, if considered necessary; d, channels to convey away water that may get in; e, hollow vulcanite tube or other packing as bed for glass; f, movable stop to prevent upper square sliding down; g, locking stud for securing capping on glass; h, movable saddle secured to bar to which locking stud is made fast.
This is composed solely of strips of sheet lead. Fig. 1375 shows a section of a sash bar before and after glazing, and Fig. 1376 of a window bar : a, glass; b, lead; c, woodwork.