This section is from the book "Spons' Mechanics' Own Book: A Manual For Handicraftsmen And Amateurs", by Edward Spon. Also available from Amazon: Spons' Mechanics' Own Book.
Wash the surface of table with liquid ammonia, applied with a piece of rag; the varnish will then peel off like a skin; afterwards smooth down with fine sandpaper. Mix 1/4 lb. lampblack with 1 qt. hot water, adding a little glue size; rub this stain well in : let it dry before sandpapering it; smooth again. Mind you do not work through the stain. Afterwards apply the following black varnish with a broad fine camel-hair brush : - Mix a small quantity of gas-black with the varnish. If one coat of varnish is not sufficient, apply a second one after the first is dry. Gas-black can bo obtained by boiling a pot over the gas, letting the pot nearly touch the burner, when a fine jet black will form on the bottom, which remove, and mix with the varnish. Copper vessels give the best black: it may be collected from barbers' warming pots.
(10) Black-board wash, or "liquid dating." - («) 4 pints 95 per cent. alcohol, 8 oz. shellac, 12 dr. lampblack, 20 dr. ultramarine blue, 4 oz. powdered rottenstone, 6 oz. powdered pumice, (b) 1 gal. 95 per cent. alcohol, 1 lb. shellac, 8 oz. best ivory black, 5 oz. finest flour emery, 4 oz. ultramarine blue. Make a perfect solution of the shellac in the alcohol before adding the other articles. To apply the slating, have the surface smooth and perfectly free from grease; well shake the bottle containing the preparation, and pour out a small quantity only into a dish, and apply it with a new flat varnish brush as rapidly as possible. Keep the bottle well corked, and shake it up each time before pouring out the liquid, (c) Lampblack and flour of emery mixed with spirit varnish. No more lampblack and flour of emery should be used than are sufficient to give the required black abrading surface. The thinner the mixture the better. Lampblack should first be ground with a small quantity of spirit varnish or alcohol to free it from lumps. The composition should be applied to the smoothly-planed surface of a board with a common paint-brush. Let it become thoroughly dry and hard bfore it is used.
Bub it down with pumice if too rough. (d) 1/2 gal. shellac varnish, 5 oz. lampblack, 3 oz. powdered iron ore or emery; if too thick, thin with alcohol. Give 3 coats of the composition, allowing each to dry before putting on the next; the first may be of shellac and lampblack alone. (e) To make 1 gal. of the paint for a blackboard, take 10 oz. pulverized and sifted pumice, 6 oz. powdered rottenstone (infusorial silica), 3/4 lb. good lampblack, and alcohol enough to form with these a thick paste, which must be well rubbed and ground together. Then dissolve 14 oz. shellac in the remainder of the gallon of alcohol by digestion and agitation, and finally mix this varnish and the paste together. It is applied to the board with a brush, care being taken to keep the paint well stirred so that the pumice will not settle. Two coats are usually necessary. The first should be allowed to dry thoroughly before the second is put on, the latter being applied so as not to disturb or rub oft* any portion of the first.
One gallon of this paint will ordinarily furnish 2 coats for 60 sq. yd. of black-board. When the paint is to be put on plastered walls, the wall should be previously coated with glue size - 1 lb. glue, 1 gal. water, enough lampblack to colour; put on hot. (/) Instead of the alcohol mentioned in b, take a solution of borax in water; dissolve the shellac in this and colour with lampblack, (g) Dilute soda silicate (water-glass) with an equal bulk of water, and add sufficient lampblack to colour it. The lampblack should be ground with water and a little of the silicate before being added to the rest of the liquid.
(11) 17.5 oz. Brazil-wood and 0.525 oz. alum are boiled for 1 hour in 2.75 lb. water. The coloured liquor is then filtered from the boiled Brazil-wood, and applied several times boiling hot to the wood to be stained. This will assume a violet colour. This violet colour can be easily changed into black by preparing a solution of 2.1 oz. iron filings, and l.05 oz. common salt in 17.5 oz. vinegar. The solution is filtered, and applied to the wood, which will then acquire a beautiful black colour.
(12) 8.75 oz. gall-nuts and 2.2 lb. logwood are boiled in 2.2 lb. rain-water for 1 hour in a copper boiler. The decoction is then filtered through a cloth, and applied several times while it is still warm to the article of wood to be stained. In this manner a beautiful black will be obtained.
(13) This is prepared by dissolving 0.525 oz. logwood extract in 2.2 lb. hot rainwater, and by adding to the logwood solution 0.035 oz. potash chromate. When this is applied several times to the article to be stained, a dark brown colour will first be obtained. To change this into a deep chrome-black, the solution of iron filings, common salt, and vinegar, given under (11) is applied to the wood, and the desired colour will be produced.
(14) Several coats of alizarine ink are applied to the wood, but every coat must be thoroughly dry before the other is put on. When the articles are dry, the solution of iron filings, common salt, and vinegar, as given in (11), is applied to the wood, and a very durable black will be obtained.
(15) According to Herzog, a black stain for wood, giving to it a colour resembling ebony, is obtained by treating the wood with two fluids, one after the other. The first fluid to be used consists of a very concentrated solution of logwood, and to 0.35 oz. of this fluid are added 0.017 oz. alum. The other fluid is obtained by digesting iron filings in vinegar. After the wood has been dipped in the first hot fluid, it is allowed to dry, and is then treated with the second fluid, several times if necessary.
(16) Sponge the wood with a solution of aniline chlorhydrate in water, to which a small quantity of copper chloride is added. Allow it to dry, and go over it with a solution of potassium bichromate. Repeat the process 2 or 3 times, and the wood will take a fine black colour.