The accumulation of "scutch" in heaps in the glue-yard, and its retention there, is an instance of traditional trade slovenliness which ought at once to be put a stop to. There can be no excuse whatever for the continuance of this source of nuisance at any works. The "scutch" ought either to be put at once into hogsheads, and fastened down for removal; or, until it is removed in covered carts or barges, or in hogsheads, it should be deposited neatly in an appropriate chamber or shed, and not be allowed to remain even there above a day or two, especially in warm or muggy weather. In Freeman Wright's works, one of the best conducted, a well-ventilated shed, open on one side and provided with a raised platform, on which the scutch may be laid, and a screen to hide it from view, is found to be better than a closed-in shed or chamber. The roof and walls of such a shed, however, should be whitened outside for coolness in the summer-time, and be" kept scrupulously clean and limewhited inside. At Nickols, Joppa, Leeds, and at Clark and Thackray's, Newlay, Leeds, the "scutch " is dealt with, immediately on its removal from the pans, for the extraction of the fat it contains, and the conversion of the " scutch" into a cake which is almost devoid of odour.

While preventing annoyance to neighbours, the proprietors must find the process profitable. On its removal from the pans the "scutch" is thrown into a tank of water, and some sulphuric acid being added, free steam is admitted. The fat which rises is taken off, and the residue is put into coarse bags and subjected to pressure in a well-closed hydraulic press, into which more steam is thrown. The liquid matters pressed out run into a tank, where more fat rises and is collected. The cake is stored on the premises without giving offence, until it is convenient to have it removed. Such dry cake should be stored under cover.

The general untidiness and superficial filthiness of glue-yards is only another instance of slovenliness showing the conservative power which attaches to ancient tradition. It need not be so, and in the interest of the manufacturer would be better not so. All parts of the premises should be firmly and evenly paved with appropriate materials, and duly sloped to good channelling, and well drained throughout. No litter of any kind is necessary, or should be permitted. The surface should be kept constantly swept up, and washed down with water from time to time. Every scrap of gelatinous glue should be gathered into proper receptacles for return to the pans. Leakages from channels and troughs should be immediately made good. The interior and edges of the pans, and everything about them, should be kept clean and free from deposits, and tidiness of working be maintained, as it readily may be, by due regulations for the establishment. (Dr. Ballard.)

(See also Glue, under Cements, pp. 78-84; and Isinglass.)