Goods for long voyages are usually packed in this manner: A strong box is made from 1-in. boards, being in length and breadth inside about the same as the length of the goods to be packed, and of any required height. The box is then lined with sheets of tin, cut so as to fit the box closely. The seams of the tin are then carefully soldered on the bottom and sides so as to be water-tight, after which a lining of coarse, cheap cloth, or other substance, is placed inside in order to keep the goods from being damaged by rubbing or chafing. The goods are then packed in firmly, each piece being wrapped in paper, and each alternate layer being placed crosswise of the other until the box is full, when a like protection of cloth or other lining is placed over the top of the goods. Then the tin cover is put on and carefully soldered at the seams where the tin is joined, making the whole perfectly water-tight. The top of the wooden box is then put on, and the goods are ready for shipment. It is claimed that goods packed in this manner may be shipped to the most distant countries without danger of being in the least damaged by shifting, chafing, or from the elements.
In fact, it would seem quite impossible for the goods to receive damage, even if they were to encounter rough handling or be quite immersed in water by reason of boisterous weather at sea. As the tin lining of the box is available but for the one shipment, it is only necessary to use light, cheap tin. The tin lining may be properly designated as a tin box to be placed within a closely-fitting wooden box or case in which to pack goods for shipment, and for the sake of convenience may be constructed separately so as to be ready for use when wanted, and placed within the wooden box or case when the goods are required to be packed.
For shorter and less dangerous voyages, goods are usually packed in square - shaped, coarse sacks, around which is placed wheat, rye, or oat straw, and around this is placed still another sack of strong material. Frequently the outer protection in this mode of packiug is simply an open box, made from strips of board 3 or 4 in. wide and about the same distance apart, and being fastened to a square frame at either end. These boxes, or more properly crates, are rough and cheaply though strongly made, and are used for the purpose of keeping the straw in place around the sack and the goods from being damaged. The sacks used in this manner of shipping are returned by the consignee to the shippers, and may be used until worn out. This process of packing is used only in inland transportation, and appears to be convenient, and to have the advantage of a great saving in wood over the large and cumbrous dry-goods boxes one is accustomed to see in America.