Mercurial ointment produces very persistent stains. These may be extracted by washing the spot with a hot solution of soda (1 soda to 50 water), and when the grease is removed, by rubbing over with a rather strong solution (clear) of chloride of lime. Benzine must be substituted for the soda solution if the article is coloured or delicate.

Care must be taken in all these cases to operate on both sides of the stuff, or the removal will only be superficial, and the spot will reappear in time. It will be.seldom found, in the case of mixed stains, that the original tone of the colour is not more or less altered or injured. Consequently, attempts must be made to re-establish the colours. If the colours be aniline, the application of Judson's dyes, in a dilute form, will generally be efficacious, except on cottons, which will require a previous mordanting on the spot. This may be effected by means of a strong decoction (clear) of myrobalams.

If the colours have been changed by vegetable acids, or dilute mineral acids, the colour may generally be restored by means of dilute ammonia. If that does not suffice, the spot must be mordanted with a brush, and the dye painted in. While drying, the spot must be continuously rubbed with a pledget of wool dipped in ether, so as to spread the matter equally, and leave no sharp line of demarcation. A weak solution of sulphate of indigo will be found useful for restoring blues; the strength must naturally be proportioned to the depth of tone required. Most scarlets, crimson, etc, can be restored by the application of a solution of bichloride of tin, followed, if necessary, by a local application of tincture of cochineal. If crimson be required, a small portion of alum must be added; if scarlet, cream of tartar along with the cochineal.

The stains produced by fresh urine, and by perspiration, require to be treated first with weak ammonia, and then with the bichloride of tin solution (long known as eau Icarlate), which will, if the colour be not altogether destroyed, restore it. Painting in, after the application of the appropriate mordant, is the only remedy, if the colour has suffered permanently.

Aniline Colours

(1) Goods stained with aniline colours may be rendered clean by the use of zinc grey: the metallic zinc contained in this powder reduces the colours, forming soluble colourless products. Triturate 100 gr. zinc grey with 50 gr. mucilage, 20° B., until the mixture is homogeneous; incorporate with this 20 gr. of a solution of hyposulphite of soda, 20° B., apply this mixture directly to the goods; let it dry and vapourize. After this operation it is best to wash the goods with water slightly acidulated with hydrochloric acid. (2) White cottons and linens, tartaric acid in solution; the older the stain the more concentrated the solution should be. Coloured cottons, and woollens and silks, a weak solution of tartaric acid, if the colour allows of its use. (3) Stains of red aniline may be removed by moistening the spot with strong alcohol acidulated with nitric acid. Unless the stain is produced by eosine it disappears without difficulty. Paper is hardly affected by the process; still it is always advisable to make a blank experiment first.

How to Remove Fruit And Wine Stains

(1) White cotton or linen, fumes of burning sulphur, warm chlorine water. Coloured cottons or woollens, wash with tepid soapsuds or ammonia. Silks the same, with very gentle rubbing. (2) First rub the spot on each side with hard soap, and then lay on a thick mixture of starch and cold water. Rub this mixture of starch well into the spot, and afterwards expose it to the sun and air. If the stain has not disappeared at the end of 3 or 4 days, repeat the process. (3) Stains of wine may be quickly and easily removed from linen, by dipping the parts which are stained into boiling milk. The milk to be kept boiling until the stain disappears.

Paint, Varnish, And Resin

(1) For white or coloured cotton and woollen goods, oil of turpentine or benzine, followed by soapsuds. For silk, benzine, ether, soap; hard rubbing is to be avoided. For all kinds of fabrics chloroform is best, but must be carefully used. (2) Stains of paint or varnish, after being softened with olive oil or fresh butter, may generally be removed by the same means as ordinary grease spots. (3) Saturate the spots with a solution of equal parts turpentine and spirits of ammonia; wash out with strong soapsuds.

Stearin, sperm candles: - For all kinds use 95 per cent, alcohol.

Tannin, walnut shells: - White cottons and linens, Javelle water (liquor sods chlorinate), warm chlorine water, concentrated solution of tartaric acid. Coloured goods or silks, chlorine water, diluted according to the tissue and colour, each application to be followed by washing with water.

Tar, axle grease: - White cottons and linens, soap, oil of turpentine, and water, each applied in turns. Coloured cottons and woollens, first, smear with lard, rub with soap and water, and let it stand for a short time; then wash with oil of turpentine and water, alternately. Silk the same, using benzine instead of turpentine, and dropping the water from a certain height on the under Bide of satin. Avoid rubbing.


Carles recommends the use of carbonate of ammonia as an effective means of cleansing the worms of stills. The carbonate of ammonia is mixed with water in the still, and, being slowly carried over in the gaseous condition with the vapour of water during distillation, it penetrates to every part of the apparatus, attacking resins, fatty bodies, sulphuretted products, etc, and after about an hour only a perfectly inodorous limpid water flows from the worm.


To remove grease from stone steps or passages, pour strong soda and water boiling hot over the spot, lay on it a little fullers' earth made into a thin paste with boiling water, let it remain all night, and if the grease be not removed, repeat the process. Grease may sometimes be taken out by rubbing the spot with a hard stone - not hearthstone - using sand and very hot water, with soap and soda.

Stuffed Animals

(1) Give the animal a good brushing with a stiff clothes-brush. After this warm a quantity of new bran in a pan, taking care it does not burn, to prevent which, quickly stir it. When warm, rub it well into the fur with your hand. Repeat this a few times, then rid the fur of the bran, and give it another sharp brushing until free from dust. (2) Sponge with white soap and warm water, rubbing well into and about the roots of the hair, but avoid using an excess of water to soak into the stuffing, or the specimen will, in all probability, never thoroughly dry, and moths and rot will be the result. Dry in a current of air as free from dust as possible; brush the fur occasionally as it dries (a coarse comb at first will, perhaps, separate the hairs better). Before putting it into its case, wash freely with benzoline, rubbing with the fur; you may never dread moths, and your specimen will always be clean if your case is properly made and closed up air-tight by means of paper pasted over every joint and crack.


(1) Fill with boiling water and add some strong washing soda; let it remain for a day or two. (2) Weak solution of spirits of salt (hydrochloric acid).