Lozenges are compounded of finely powdered loaf sugar I and other substances (liquid or powdered), held together in a paste by means of gum solution, then rolled into thin sheets, and stamped into little cakes. The chief precaution necessary is to have the gum of sufficient tenacity. Some gum solutions used are: (1) 1 oz. tragacanth, 1/2 pint water; soak in a warm place" for 24 hours; put into a coarse cloth, and twist until all the gum has been squeezed out; 1 oz. of this dissolved gum suffices for 4 to 5 lb. sugar. (2) 1 oz. dissolved gum arabic to 12 oz. sugar. (3) 1 oz. tragacanth and 3 oz. gum arabic. (4) 1 lb. gum arabic dissolved in 1 pint water, for all but " medicinal" lozenges. (5) 2} lb. gum arabic dissolved in 1 qt. water, and 1 oz. tragacanth in 1/2 pint water, for all lozenges.

Bath Pipe

(I) 8 lb. sugar, 12 oz. liquorice. Warm the liquorice, cut in thin slices, dissolve in 1 qt. boiling water, stir well to assist the solution; let settle, when dissolved, to allow impurities to fall down; pour off free from the sediment; dissolve the gum in the clear part, and mix into a paste as for lozenges. Roll out a piece with your hand in a round form; finish rolling it with a long flat piece of wood, until it is about the size of the largest end of the stem of a tobacco-pipe. Dry in the stove as lozenges. May be flavoured with aniseed by adding a few drops of the oil, or with catechu or violets by adding orris-root or catechu powders. Any paste for lozenges may be formed into pipes by rolling it out as for Bath pipes. They are occasionally striped blue, green, and yellow, by making strips with liquid colour on the paste and twisting before rolling out with the board.

(2) 10 oz. powdered gum arabic, 13 oz. Spanish juice, 13 1/2 lb. lawned sugar, 1 oz. tartaric acid. Dissolve the liquorice; strain, evaporate to a thick consistence, and keep covered with a damp cloth to prevent drying. When cold, work in the sugar, acid, and gum, as for lozenges, and make into pipes.

Brilliants

Take either of the pastes (1) to (4) for peppermint lozenges, and cut into small fancy devices.

Catechu

(1) 4 lb. sugar, 12 oz. catechu. Make into paste with dissolved gum. (2) A l'Ambergis. To paste for (1), add 16 gr. ambergris. (3) With Musk. Same as for (1), adding 16 gr. musk. (4) With Orange-flowers. As before, adding 12 drops essence of neroli. (5) With Violets. As before, adding 3 dr. Florence orris-root powder.

Cinnamon

2 oz. dissolved traga-canth, 8 lb. lawned sugar, 1 oz. powdered cinnamon, 10 drops essential oil. Mix into a paste, and colour with bole ammoniac. Stomachic.

Clove

8 lb. sugar, 3 oz. cloves, 2 oz. tragacanth. Each should contain 2 gr. cloves. Restorative and stomachic.

Colt's-Foc's Bock

1 lb. Spanish liquorice dissolved in 3/4 pint water; 2 oz. tragacanth dissolved in 1 1/4 pint water; 28 lb. lawned sugar, 1 oz. essence of lemon, 2 oz. extract of poppies. Colour with Spanish brown. Make into a paste. Force through a metal tube with a plate at the bottom, having holes at the bottom similar to a star, by the means of a screw. Cut into lengths, and dry.

Ementine

1 lb. sugar, 5 dr. ementine, sufficient dissolved gum to make a paste; colour with carmine, and make 1300 lozenges. (2) Pure. - 1 lb. sugar, 24 gr. pure ementine, sufficient gum to make paste. Makes 1040 lozenges.

Ginger

8 lb. sugar and 8 oz. best ground ginger. Mix into a paste with dissolved gum. Essence may be used instead of powder, colouring with saffron. Stimulant and stomachic.

Ipecacuanha

4 lb. sugar, 1 oz. ipecacuanha, sufficient dissolved gum to make a paste. Make 960 lozenges, each containing 1/2 gr. ipecacuanha. Expectorant and stomachic.

Lavender

As rose lozenges, using English oil of lavender instead of rose.

Magnesia

(1) 8 oz. calcined magnesia, 4 oz. sugar, 2 scr. ginger powder, sufficient dissolved gum arabic to form a paste. (2) 2 oz. magnesia, 8 oz. sugar, sufficient gum arabic to make a paste, dissolved in orange-flower water.

Marshmallow

1 lb. marsh mallow root powder or slices, make a strong decoction, in which dissolve the gum;

4 lb. fine sugar. Mix into a paste. 6 drops laudanum and 2 oz. liquorice improve the pectoral quality.

Nitre

4 lb. sugar, 1 lb. salnitre, sufficient dissolved gum tragacanth to make a paste. .

Nutmeg

8 lb. sugar, 1 oz. oil of nutmegs, sufficient dissolved gum to mix into a paste. Stimulant and stomachic.

Patta Rosa

Rose lozenges, with the addition of a little tartaric acid.

Peppermint

(1) Double-refined loaf sugar, pounded and sifted through a lawn sieve; make a bay with the sugar on a marble slab, pour in some dissolved gum, and mix into a paste as dough, flavouring with oil of peppermint. Some prefer mixing the gum and sugar together first in a mortar Roll out the paste on a marble slab until it is about 1/8 in. thick, using starch powder to dust with, to prevent sticking to the slab and pin. Before cutting out, strew or dust over the surface with powder mixed with lawned sugar, and rub over with the heel of your hand, which gives a smooth face. This is termed " facing up." Brush off, and again dust the surface with starch powder,, cut out, and place in wooden trays. Put in the stove to dry. All lozenges are finished in the same manner. (2) As (1), adding a little starch-powder or prepared plaster as for gum paste to the paste, instead of using all sugar. (3) Use more starch powder in proportion; smaller cutters, and the paste rolled thicker. (4) Transparent. These are made from loaf-sugar in coarse powder; mix into a paste with dissolved gum arabic and a little lemon-juice. Flavour with oil of peppermint. (5) Superfine Transparent. The sugar must be in coarser grains. Mix and flavour as the others. The coarser the grains of sugar, the more transparent the lozenges.

The finest particles destroy transparency. The solution of gum should be thicker in proportion as the sugar is coarse.

(6) The commonest peppermint lozenges are made with half farina (prepared starch), and half loaf-sugar, of second quality. A little smalt blue is added to make them of a good colour.

Refined Liquorice

4 lb. best Spanish juice, and 2 lb. of gum arabic. Dissolve the liquorice in warm water, as for Bath pipe. Strain, and dissolve the gum in the solution of liquorice. Place over a gentle fire, in a broad pan, and let boil gradually, stirring continually (or it will burn) until reduced to a paste. Roll into pipes or cylinders of convenient lengths, and polish by putting in a box and rolling together, or by rubbing with the hand or a cloth. Often adulterated by using glue instead of gum, and by dipping the pipes in a thin solution, which gives them a beautiful gloss when dry. In manufacture on a large scale, the liquorice is dissolved in a large water-bath, and stirred with spatulas worked by a steam-engine.

Rhubarb

4 lb. sugar, 10 oz. best Turkey rhubarb in powder.

Rose

Make paste as peppermint (1), using otto of roses to flavour; or the gum may be dissolved in rose water, and a little essential oil added if required. Colour with carmine.

Saffron

4 oz. dry and powdered saffron, 4 lb. sugar, sufficient dissolved gum.

Sponge

1 lb. sugar, 12 oz. burnt sponge, sufficient gum arabic dissolved in rose water to make into a paste.

Steel

1 lb. pure iron filings or rust, 4 oz. cinnamon powder, 7 lb. fine sugar, sufficient dissolved gum to make a paste. Stomachic and tonic.

Sulphur

4 lb. sugar, 8 oz. sublimed sulphur, sufficient gum to make a paste.

Tola

4 lb. sugar, 3 dr. balsam of tolu (or 1 fl. oz. tincture), 6 oz. cream of tartar (or 1 dr. tartaric acid), sufficient dissolved gum to make a paste. Flavour by adding 1/4 oz. vanilla, and 60 drops essence of amber. Reduce to fine powder with the sugar. Pectoral and balsamic.

Vanilla

4 lb. sugar, 6 oz. vanilla powder, .or sufficient to give strong flavour. Make into paste with dissolved gum.

Worm

(1) 7 lb. fine sugar, 4 oz. calomel washed in spirits of wine, ldr. saffron, sufficient dissolved gum tragacanth to make a paste. Make a decoction of the saffron in J pint water, strain, and mix. Each lozenge should contain 1 gr. mercury. (2) 7 oz. calomel washed in spirits of wine (termed "panacea"), 3 1/2 lb. jalap resin, 9 lb. fine sugar, sufficient dissolved gum to make a paste. Each lozenge should contain 1/2 gr. mercury. (3) 1 oz. panacea, 2 oz. jalap resin, 2 lb. sugar. Dissolve sufficient gum in rose-water to make a paste. Make 2520 lozenges, weighing 8 gr. each, and containing 1/4 gr. calomel and 1/2 gr. jalap. These should be kept very dry, as damp, acting on the sugar and mercury, generates an acid. In mixing all medicated lozenges, the different powders should be well mixed with the sugar, in order that each lozenge may have its due portion.

Yellow Pectoral

1 lb. sugar, 12 dr. Florence orris-root powder, 6 dr. liquorice root, 1 oz. almonds, 4 scr. saffron powder, sufficient dissolved gum to make a paste. Make decoction of the liquorice to moisten the gum.

Zinc

1 oz. sulphate of zinc, 4 lb. sugar. Mix into a paste with prepared gum. Each lozenge should contain 1/2 gr. zinc.

Much additional information will be found in the Confectioners' Handbo.k, by E. Skuse, with prices of the various necessaries.