Though great changes have taken place in the dyeing industry owing to the introduction of the coal tar dyes, nevertheless in many places these are not procurable, and therefore the old-fashioned colouring matters are not by any means superseded in out-of-the-way places, and the old-fashioned recipes are still acceptable. For newer systems, the reader is referred to the Second Series, p. 206 et seq., and to Spon's 'Encyclopaedia.'

Mordants, &C - Ageing Liquor

20 lb. caustic soda at 60° Tw., 20 lb. white arsenic in powder. Boil until all the arsenic is dissolved. Make a solution of 3 lb. of chlorate of potash in 4 gal. of water; add the first liquor until it stands at 28° Tw.

Black Liquor

300 lb. copperas dissolved with 175 gal. hot water, then add 57 gal. acetate of lime liquor at 16° Tw., or 32 lb. copperas, 5 quarts pyrolieneous acid at 7° Tw., 10 gal. acetate of lime liquor at 24° Tw. Used as a mordant; gives black with madder at 6° Tw.; very diluted gives various shades of violet, and with red liquor gives chocolate.

Pink Mordant

(a) Alkaline - To 10 gal. caustic potash add slowly 35 lb. sulphate of alumina; thicken with British gum, and fix with chloride of zinc or sal ammoniac.

(B) Verdigris

2 quarts water at 160° F., 2 lb. white sugar of lead, 2 lb. sulphate of copper. Used in calico printing, and in the black dye for silk.

Red Mordant

(a) 20 lb. powdered alum is dissolved in 9 gal. water heated to 140° F.; mix with this 20 lb. sugar of lead, and add 2 lb. soda crystals; should be frequently stirred for days. Used in the above proportions for calico.

(6) For Madder Pink

8 lb. alum, 9 quarts water, 6 lb. sugar of lead. For lighter pink, use 10 gal. water, 37 lb. alum, 15 lb. sugar of lead, 2 1/2 lb. pulverised chalk, 5 lb. chloride of sodium (common salt).

Cotton. Black

(a) For 40 lb. Boil or scald 10 lb. sumach; lay the cloth or yarn in this for 18 hours; wring out; run through acetate of iron, 40° Tw.; 4 turns, or for half an hour; wring out; repeat and wash well in 3 waters; then boil 8 lb. logwood and 1 lb. fustic; put off the boil and enter; or the clear of the liquor may be decanted into another dish; 1 run, continue half an hour; wring out; repeat; sadden with 1 lb. copperas; 2 runs; wash and dry. In job dyeing, for a piece of cloth 20 yards, prepare in strong hot sumach like the above; then put 3 quarts slaked lime into 20 gallons water; when the lime precipitates, decant the clear into another tub, lift the cloth out of the sumach, give 1 run through acetate of iron, 1 through lime, repeat in the iron, and again through the lime. Should the cloth have got unlevel, give an extra run through the lime to make it level; then wash in 2 waters, and give logwood and a little fustic, like the above.

(b) For 50 lb. Dark blue on blue vat; lay them in 18 lb. hot sumach for 24 hours; lift, and sadden with black iron liquor; wash and dry.

Blue Vat

140 gal. water, 16 lb. copperas, 8 lb. ground indigo, 16 lb. quicklime. Rake up occasionally for 5 or 6 hours, till all the copperas be dissolved; if the vat be of a greenish yellow colour, consider it in good order; if it assumes a dark green colour, it shows a deficiency of lime; if yellowish, it is short of copperas; after raking, allow 12 hours to settle before working; renovate with copperas and lime, according to the state of the vat.

Blue, Deep

Put 10 lb. cotton through the blue vat; soak in a decoction of 2 lb. sumach for 3 hours; work for 15 minutes through water containing 1 pint red mordant and 1 pint black liquor; wash twice in hot water, then work 20 minutes in a decoction of 2 lb. logwood; lift, and raise with 1/2 pint of red mordant, work 10 minutes; wash and dry.

Blue, Pale

For 50 lb. 2 1/2 lb. prussiate of potash; nitrate of iron, 3° Tw.;add-.2 1/2 lb. crystals of tin, 1 pint vitriol. - Turn in the iron tub 20 minutes; lift; run through cold water (not rinsed), wring up: shake well out; dissolve the prussiate into 100 gallons water; enter, and winch 15 minutes; lift, and give 2 gills vitriol; return for 10 minutes; lift, and run through water; again through the iron tub; repeat in the prussiate; raise again with vitriol, and when the required shade is got, lift; 1 water, and finish out of a weak solution of alum.

Blue, Royal

Run upon the cold blue vat; air out; wash in 2 waters, and sour; then give a run through the iron (nitrate) tub; 1 water, and top with prussiate of potash, 1/2 oz. to the pound of yarn. If the vat is not in good order, or without that convenience, better do this colour with prussiate altogether.

Blue, Woad Vat

250 gallons water, 170° F., put in 150 lb. best English woad, well chopped; 9 lb. best indigo, well ground; 2 1/2 lb. madder; 2 1/2 lb. bran. Rake all together well up, and the vat ought to assume a green appearance; in 12 or 14 hours, dip a piece of cloth, or a little wool, into the vat; if it dye green, it will turn blue by exposure to the air; rake up, and if it holds the head well up, put in 1 quart of quicklime, and rake again; in 3 hours after, rake again, and if it looks of a greenish yellow, put in 1 1/2 quart more of lime; in 3 or 4 hours after, rake again; if the vat looks yellower, use another quart of lime; in an hour after this, if it smells slightly of lime, it has enough; if it smells strongly of lime, it has too much, which may be counteracted by using 1 1/2 or 2 lb. of madder, or by heating the vat; when the liquor is hard, it is of an orange colour, which may be seen by blowing; when it is soft, it appears faint yellow, and throws up a scum. In serving or heating the vat, it should be raked occasionally, taking care not to disturb the sediment, but merely to bring the liquor to an equal degree of heat; then put in 3 lb. indigo, and 1 1/2 lb. madder; allow it to settle for 12 hours; then, if it looks of a greenish colour, and does not smell of lime, use 1 quart of lime.