(1) For white linen or cotton goods, use soap or weak lye. For coloured calicoes, warm soapsuds. For woollens, soapsuds or ammonia. For silks, benzine, ether, ammonia, magnesia, chalk, yolk of egg, with water. (2) Dissolve 1 oz. pearlash in 1 pint water, and to this solution add a lemon cut into thin slices. Mix well, and keep the mixture in a warm state for 2 days, then strain and bottle the clear liquid for use. A small quantity of this mixture poured on stains, occasioned by either grease, oil, or pitch, will speedily remove them. Afterwards wash in clear water. (3) Carbonate of magnesia - magnesia that has been previously calcined is best - is dried in an oven and mixed with sufficient benzine to form a soft, friable mass. In this state it is put into a wide-mouthed glass bottle, well-stoppered and kept for use. It is spread pretty thickly over the stains, and rubbed well to and fro with the tip of the finger. The small rolls of earthy matter so formed are brushed off, and more magnesia is laid on and left until the benzine has evaporated entirely. Materials that will bear washing are then cleaned with water; on silks, alcohol or benzine should be used instead.
The process may be applied to textile fabrics of every description, except those containing very much wool, to which the magnesia adheres very tenaciously. It may also be used for stains, old or new, on all sorts of fancy woods, ivory, parchment, etc, without risk of injury. Ordinary writing ink is not affected by it, but letterpress quickly dissolves, owing to the absorption of the fatty matter in the ink. (4) A method of cleansing greasy woollen or cotton rags and waste. The rags are thrown into a closed revolving drum, with a quantity of perfectly dry and finely-powdered plaster-of-Paris; when the plaster has absorbed all the grease, the whole is transferred to another revolving drum, pierced with holes, by which means the greater portion of the greasy plaster is got rid of. The operation is finished by beating the rags on a kind of wooden sieve. (5) In the removal of grease from clothing, with benzol or turpentine, people generally make the mistake of wetting the cloth with the turpentine and then rubbing it with a sponge or piece of cloth. In this way the fat is dissolved, but is spread over a greater space and is not removed; the benzol or turpentine evaporates, and the fat covers a greater surface than before.
The way is to place soft blotting-paper beneath and on top of the grease-spot, which is to be first thoroughly saturated with the benzol, and then well pressed. The fat is then dissolved and absorbed by the paper, and entirely removed from the clothing. (6) Castile soap in shavings, 4 oz.; carbonate of soda, 2 oz.; borax, 1 oz.; aqua ammonia, 7 oz.; alcohol, 3 oz.; sulphuric ether, 2 oz. Soft water enough to make 1 gal. Boil the soap in the water until it is dissolved, and then add the other ingredients. Although it is not apparent what good 2 oz. of ether can do in a gallon of liquid, the mixture is said to be very efficient. (7) Make a weak solution of ammonia by mixing the ordinary " liquor ammonia? " of the druggist with its own volume of cold water, and rub it well into the greasy parts, rinsing the cloth in cold water from time to time until the grease is removed. The ammonia forms a soap with the fatty acids of the grease, which is soluble in water.
(8) On paper. Press powdered fullers' earth lightly upon the greasy spot, and allow it to soak out the grease. (9) Hannett says the spots may be removed by washing the part with ether, chloroform, or benzine, -and placing between white blotting-paper, then passing a hot iron over. (10) A more expeditious, and thought by some, the best way, is to scrape fine pipeclay, magnesia, or French chalk on both sides of the stain, and apply a hot iron above, taking great care that it is not too hot. (11) After gently warming the paper, take out all the grease you can with blotting-paper, and a hot iron, then dip a brush into essential oil of turpentine, heated almost to ebullition, and draw it gently over both sides of the paper, which must be kept warm. Repeat the operation until all is removed, or as often as the thickness of the paper may render necessary. When all the grease is removed, to restore the paper to its former whiteness, dip another brush in ether, chloroform, or benzine, and apply over the stain, especially the edges of it. This will not affect printers' or common writing ink. (12) Lay on a coat of indiarubber solution over the spot, and leave it to dry. Afterwards remove with a piece of ordinary indiarubber.
A correspondent in "Notes and Queries," Dec. 10, 1863, says, "any operation with ether, chloroform, or benzine, should never be conducted by candlelight, as their vapour is apt to kindle even at several feet from the liquid." No. (10) will remove grease from coloured calf, even if the spot be on the tinder side of the leather, it may thus be clearly drawn right through. (13) Apply a solution of pearlash (in the proportion of 1 oz. pearlash to 1 pint water) to oil-stained drawing-paper.
(14) Immerse the stained calico in strong soda and water, and then well wash in clean water. The soda would saponify the oil, and so render it soluble in water. If you want to carry on the cleaning process on a large scale, the best way is to boil the goods in limewater or a solution of any alkali, and then well wash them. (15) To get grease out of woollen goods, the best way to proceed is to immerse them in a cold bath, consisting of stale urine and water, for about 20 minutes. During this time the carbonate of ammonia evolved in the decomposition of the urea combines with the grease, forming a substance which is readily removed by washing. (16) Work your linen in a lye of soda; say 1 gill commercial caustic soda to every 2 gal. water; boil, and steep in this 1 hour; wash and steep 2 hours in a solution of bleaching liquor: 1 gill bleaching liquor, at 28° Tw., to every gallon of water; wash from this, and steep 1 hour in a weak sour, say 1 gill spirits of salts to 1 gal. liquor; now wash repeatedly in water, when the stains will disappear, and the linen become clean and white.
(17) Felt Hats
Wash in a hot solution of soda or sesquicarbonate of ammonia.
Take 1/4 lb. fullers' earth and 1/4 lb. pearlash, and boil together in 1 qt. water, and, while hot, spread it on the greased surface, allowing it to remain 14 or 15 hours; after which it may be scoured off with sand and water. (19) Procure some good light benzoline, scrub the stained portion with a hard brush dipped in this, then wipe with a dry flannel. Make a strong solution of common washing soda in hot water, place a little unslaked lime, broken into coarse powder, over the stains, and pour on sufficient solution of soda to wet the lime thoroughly. Leave this mixture on for a short time, then scrub hard with plenty of clean hot water, and wipe dry with clean flannel.
Upon the grease stain lay a little damp fullers' earth, and,, after standing for some time, rub it gently into the carpet, and then wash off by using a little carbonate of ammonia, and the colour will be restored.