This section is from the book "The Tinman's Manual And Builder's And Mechanic's Handbook", by Isaac Ridler Butt. Also available from Amazon: The Tinman's Manual And Builder's And Mechanic's Handbook.
This cement consists of earthy and other substances insoluble in water, or nearly so; and these may be either those which are in their natural state, or have bean manufactured, such as earthenware and china; those being always preferred -which are least soluble in water, and have the least color. When these are pulverized, some oxide of lead is added, such as litharge, gray oxide, or minium, reduced to a fine powder; and to the compound is added a quantity of pulverized glass or flint stones, the whole being thoroughly mixed and made into a proper consistence with some vegetable oil, as that of linseed. This makes a durable stucco or plaster, that is impervious to wet, and has the appearance of stone.
The proportion of the several ingredients is as follows: - to every five hundred and sixty pounds of earth, or earths, such as pit sand, river sand, rock sand, pulverized earthenware or porcelain, add forty pounds of litharge, two pounds of pulverized glass or flint, one pound of minium, and two pounds of gray oxide of lead. Mix the whole together, and sift it through sieves of different degrees of fineness, according to the purposes to which the cement is to be applied.
The following is the method of using it: - To every thirty pounds weight of the cement in powder, add about one quart of oil, either linseed, walnut, or some other vegetable oil, and mix it in the same manner as any other mortar, pressing it gently together, either by treading on it, or with the trowel; it has then the appearance of moistened sand. Care must also be taken that no more is mixed at one time than is required for use, as it soon hardens into a solid mass. Before the cement is applied, the face of the wall to be plastered should be brushed over with oil, particularly if it be applied to brick, or any other substance that quickly imbibes the oil; if to wood, lead, or any substance of a similar nature, less oil may be used.