This section is from the book "The Tinman's Manual And Builder's And Mechanic's Handbook", by Isaac Ridler Butt. Also available from Amazon: The Tinman's Manual And Builder's And Mechanic's Handbook.
1. Heat the article to be mended, a little above boiling water heat, then apply a thin coating of gum shellac, on both surfaces of the broken vessel, and when cold it will be as strong as it was originally. 2. Dissolve gum shellac in alcohol, apply the solution, and bind the parts firmly together until the cement is perfectly dry.
Another cement in which an analogous substance, the curd or ca-seum of milk is employed, is made by boiling slices of skim-milk cheese into a gluey consistence in a great quantity of Water, and then incorporating it with quicklime on a slab with a muller, or in a marble mortar. When this compound is applied warm to broken edges of stoneware, it unites them very firmly after it is cold.
For making architectural ornaments in relief, a moulding composition is formed of chalk, glue, and paper paste. Even statues have been made with it, the paper aiding the cohesion of the mass.
Mastics of a resinous or bituminous nature, which must be softened or fused by heat, are the following:-
Mr. S. Varley's consists of sixteen parts of whiting sifted and thoroughly dried by a red heat, adding when cold a melted mixture of sixteen parts of black rosin and one of bees'-wax, and stirring well during the cooling.
Electrical and chemical apparatus cement consists of 5 lbs. of rosin, 1 of bees-wax, 1 of red ochre, and two table-spoonsful of Paris plaster, all melted together. A cheaper one for cementing voltaic plates into wooden troughs is made with 6 pounds of rosin, 1 pound of red ochre, ½ of a pound of plaster of Paris, and ¼ of a pound of linseed oil. The ochre and the plaster of Paris should be calcined beforehand, and added to the other ingredients in their melted state. The thinner the stratum of cement that is interposed, the stronger, generally speaking, is the junction.
Finely powdered iron sixty-six parts, sal-ammoniac one part, water a sufficient quantity to form into paste.
Dissolve one part of isinglass and two of white glue in thirty of water, strain and evaporate to six parts. Add one-thirtieth part of gum mastic, dissolved in half a part of alcohol, and one part of white zinc. When required for use, warm and shake up.
The best cement for this purpose is made by mixing one part of sulphur in powder, two parts of sal-ammoniac, and eighty parts of clean powdered iron turnings. Sufficient water must be added to make it into a thick paste, which should be pressed into the holes or seams which are to be filled up. The ingredients composing this cement should be kept separate, and not mixed until required for use. It is to be applied cold, and the casting should not be used for two or three days afterwards.
Boiled linseed oil and red lead mixed together into a putty are often used by coppersmiths and engineers, to secure joints. The washers of leather or cloth are smeared with this mixture in a pasty state.
Melted brimstone, either alone, or mixed with rosin and brick dust, forms a tolerably good and very cheap cement.
Plumber's cement consists of black rosin one part, brick dust two parts, well incorporated by a melting heat.
cement for bottle-corks.
The bituminous or black cement for bottle-corks consists of pitch hardened by the addition of rosin and brick-dust.
Take the curd of milk, dried and powdered, ten ounces; quicklime one ounce; camphor two drachms. Mix, and keep in closely stopped bottle-. When used, a portion is to be mixed with a little water into a paste, to be applied quickly.
A mixture of India-rubber and shell-lac varnish makes a very adhesive leather cement. A Strong Solution of common isinglass, with a little diluted alcohol added to it, makes an excellent cement for leather.
Take plaster of paris, and soak it in a saturated solution of alum, then bake the two in an oven, the same as gypsum is baked to make it plaster of paris; after which they are ground to powder. It is then used as wanted, being mixed up with water like plaster and applied. It sets into a very hard composition capable of taking a very high polish. It may be mixed with various coloring minerals to produce a cement of any color capable of imitating marble.
Shellac dissolved in alcohol, or in a solution of borax, forms a pretty good cement.
White of egg alone, or mixed with finely sifted quicklime, will answer for uniting objects which are not exposed to moisture. The latter combination is very strong, and is much employed for joining pieces of spar and marble ornaments. A similar composition is used by coppersmiths to secure the edges and rivets of boilers; only bullock's blood is the albuminous matter used instead of white of egg.
Dissolve one part of India-rubber in 64 of chloroform, then add gum mastic in powder 16 to 24 parts, and digest for two days with frequent shaking. Apply with a camels-hair brush.
Take two parts of sulphur, and one part, by weight, of fine black lead; put the sulphur in an old iron pan, holding it over the fire until it begins to melt, then add the lead; stir well until all is mixed and melted; then pour out on an iron plate, or smooth stone. When cool, break into small pieces. A sufficient quantity of this compound being placed upon the crack of the iron pot to be mended, can be soldered by a hot iron in the same way a tinsmith solders his sheets. If there is a small hole in the pot, drive a copper rivet in it and then solder over it with this cement.
An excellent cement for resisting moisture is made by incorporating thoroughly eight parts of melted glue, of the consistence used by carpenters, with four parts of linseed oil, boiled into varnish with litharge. This cement hardens in about forty-eight hours, and renders the joints of wooden cisterns and casks air and water tight. A compound of glue with one-fourth its weight of Venice turpentine, made as above, serves to cement glass, metal and wood, to one another Fresh-made cheese curd, and old skim-milk cheese, boiled in water to a slimy consistence, dissolved in a solution of bicarbonate of potash are said to form a good cement for glass and porcelain. The gluten of wheat, well prepared, is also a good cement. White of eggs, with flour and water well-mixed, and smeared over linen cloth, forms a ready lute for steam joints in small apparatus.
White lead ground upon a slab with linseed oil varnish, and kept out of contact of air, affords a cement capable of repairing fractured bodies of all kinds. It requires a few weeks to harden. When stone or iron are to be cemented together, a compound of equal parts of sulphur with pitch answers very well.
Make a paste of slacked lime one part, rye-meal two parts, with a sufficient quantity of linseed oil. Or, dissolve one part of glue in sixteen parts of water, and when almost cool stir in sawdust and prepared chalk a sufficient quantity. Or, oil-Tarnish thickened with a mixture of equal parts of white-lead, red-lead, litharge, and chalk.
Melt rosin and stir in calcined plaster until reduced to a paste, to which add boiled oil a sufficient quantity, to bring it to the consistence of honey; apply warm. Or, melt rosin 180 parts, and stir in burnt umber 30, calcined plaster 15, and boiled oil 8 parts.
Mix together, resin four and one-halt parts, wax one part, and Venetian red three parts.
Zinc-white rubbed up with copal varnish to fill up the indentures; when dry, to be covered with the same mass, somewhat thinner, and lastly with copal varnish alone.
M<lt rosin 150 parts, wax 80, and add burnt ochre 30, and calcined plaster 2 parts. Apply warm.
Shellac two parts, prepared chalk one,powdered and mixed. The opening for the blade is filled with this powder, the lower end of the iron heated and pressed in.
If hydraulic cement be mixed with oil, it firms a first-rate anti-combustible and excellent water-proof paint lor roofs of buildings, oathouses, walls,