This section is from the book "The Tinman's Manual And Builder's And Mechanic's Handbook", by Isaac Ridler Butt. Also available from Amazon: The Tinman's Manual And Builder's And Mechanic's Handbook.

To this branch belongs all the wood work of a house, such as flooring, partitioning, roofing, etc. Large and plain arlicles are usually measured by the square foot or yard, etc, but enriched mouldings, and some other articles, are often estimated by running or lineal measures, and some things are rated by the pi<

All joints, girders, and in fact all the parts of naked flooring, are measured by the cube, and their quantities are found by multiplying the length by the breadth, and the product by the depth. The same rule appplies to the measurement of all the timbers of a roof, and also the framed limbers used in the construction of partitions.

Flooring, that is to say, the boards which cover the naked flooring, is measured by the square. The dimensions are taken from wall to wall, and the product is divided by 100, which gives the number of squares; but deductions must be made for staircases and chimneys.

In measuring of joist, it is to be observed, that only one of their dimensions is the same with that of the floor; fa the other exceeds the length of the room by the thickness of the wall, and one-third of the same, because each cut is let into the wall about two-thirds of its thickness deduction is made for door- ways, on account of the trouble of framing them.

No deductions are made for hearths, on account of the additional trouble and waste of materials.

Partitions are measured from wall to wall for one dimension, and from floor to floor,as far as they extend, for the other.

In measuring of joiners' work, the string is made to ply close to every part of the work over which it pusses.

The measure for centering for cellars is found by making a string pass over r the surface of the arch for the breadth, and taking the length of the cellar for the length; but in groin centering, it is usual to allow double measure, on account of their extraordinary trouble.

In roofing, the length of the house in the inside, together with two-thirds of the thickness of one gable, is to he considered as the length. and the breadth is equal to double the length of a string which is stretched from the ridge down the ratter, and along the eaves-board, till it meets with the top of the wall.

For staircases, take the breadth of all the steps, by making a line ply close over them, from the top to the bottom, and multiply the length of this line by the length of a step, for the whole area.- By the length of a step is meant the length of the front and the returns at the two ends; and by the breadth, is to be understood the girth of its two outer surfaces, or the tread and riser.

For the balustrade, take the whole length of the upper part of the handrail, and girt over its end till it meet the top of the newel post, for the length; and twice the length of the baluster upon the landing, with the girth of the handrail for the breadth.

For wainscoting, take the compass of the room for the length; and the height from the floor to the ceiling, making the string ply close into all the mouldings for the breadth. Out of this must be made deductions for windows, doors, and chimneys, etc., but workmanship is counted for the whole, on account of the extraordinary trouble.

For doors, it is usual to allow for their thickness, by adding it to both dimensions of length and breadth, and then to multiply them together for the area. If the door be paneled on both sides, take double its measure for the workmanship; but if the one side only be paneled, take the area and its half for the workmanship. - For the surrounding architrave, gird it about the outermost parts for its length; and measure over it, as far as it can be seen when the door is open, for the breadth.

Window-shutters, bases, etc, are measured in the same manner.

In the measuring of roofing for workmanship alone, holes for chimney-shafts and sky-lights are generally deducted. But in measuring for work and materials, they commonly measure in all sky-lights, lutheran-lights, and holes for the chimney-shafts, on account of their trouble and waste of materials.

The doors and shutters, being worked on both sides, are reckoned work and half work.

Hemlock and Pine Shingles are generally 18 inches long, and of the average width of 4 inches. When nailed to the roof 6 inches are generally left cut to the weather, and 6 shingles are therefore required to a square foot. Cedar and Cypress Shingles are generally 20 inches long, and 6 inches wide, and therefore a less number are required for a "square." On account of waste and defects, 1000 shingles should be allowed to a square.

Two 4-penny nails are allowed to each shingle, equal to 1200 to a square.

The weight of a square of partitioning may be estimated at from 1500 to 2000 lbs.; a square of single-joisted flooring, at from 1200 to 2000 lbs.; a square of framed flooring, at from 2700 to 4500 lbs; a square of deafening, at about 1500 lbs. 100 superficial feet make one square of boarding, flooring, etc.

In selecting Timber, avoid spongy heart, porous grain, and dead knots; choose the brightest in color, and where the strong red grain appears to rise on the surface.

The Carpenter will find in the " Business Man's Assistant" Tables giving the solid contents of Timber and Logs; the square feet in Scantling from 2.2 to 15.16 inches; the square feet in Boards and Planks; the contents of Logs in standard Board measure; the strength and weight of Iron Cylinders, Trusses, Plates, Cast Iron for Beams, and Hoop Iron.

Number of American Iron Machine Cut Nails, in a pound, (by count.)

Size. | Number. |

3 penny | . . 408 |

4 " | . . 275 |

5 " | , . . 227 |

Size. | Number. |

6 penny | . . 156 |

8 " . | . . 100 |

10 " . | . . 66 |

Size. | Number. |

12 penny | ... 52 |

20 " | . ... 32 |

30 " | . ... 25 |

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