This section is from the book "Progressive Lessons In The Art and Practice of Needlework", by Catherine F. Johnson. Also available from Amazon: Progressive Lessons In The Art And Practice Of Needlework.
1/2 in. from the end of the finger, held in place with the thumb and second finger (Figs. 16, 17, 18). Sew with the needle pointing to the middle of the edge of the left thumb-nail (Fig. 19). Make the stitches small, but to show distinctly on the under side. (Illustrate on the blackboard.)
Fig. 18. - Held over the finger for hemming.
Fig. 19. - Needle pointing to the centre of left thumbnail, when hemming.
Fig. 21. - Work held for oversewing.
Fig. 22. - Oversewing.
33. How should the work be held for oversewing? Ans. The work should be held around the end of the first finger of the left hand, and kept firmly in place with the thumb and second finger (Fig. 21).
34. How should the needle be pointed in oversewing? Arts. In oversewing the needle should be pointed directly toward the chest (Fig. 22).
35. What must always be done after the seam is oversewed? Ans. Press the stitches flat on the wrong side, with the right thumb-nail, to finish the oversewing seam.
36. When is an oversewed seam used? Ans. An oversewed seam is used in joining two selvedges or two folded edges.
37. What is a selvedge ? Ans. A woven or finished edge.
38. What is a raw edge? Ans. A cut or torn edge.
39. What is overcasting? Ans. Overcasting is the same as oversewing, the stitches being larger, and is used over raw edges to prevent them from ravelling (Fig. 23).
Fig. 23. - Overcasting.
40. How do we begin the work and join the thread in overcasting?
Arts. We should tie a knot in the end of the thread, and put it between the two edges of the cloth, so that it cannot be seen.
41. When is a French seam used? Ans. A French seam is used on delicate material to conceal the raw edges.
42. In making a fell, how should the work be held in order to turn the edge with the needle? Ans. The work should be held as for hemming, but more firmly.
43. How should the needle be held in order to turn the edge of the fell?
Ans. The needle should be held nearly parallel with the seam, the eye resting on the thimble, and grasped firmly near the centre by the thumb and forefinger of the right hand. Thus held, the edge of the fell should be turned under with the point of the needle 1/2 in.; when that is hemmed another 1/2 in. is turned, until the seam is finished (Fig. 24).
44. When is a fell used? Ans. A fell is used when a flat seam without raw edges is required.
45. How is a hemmed-on patch made? Ans. A square piece of cloth is turned down 1/8 in. on its four edges, selvedge sides first, and basted over the worn or torn place, on the under side, being careful that the length and width threads match the cloth, and then neatly hemmed down. The torn edges on the right side are then cut evenly to 3/4 in. from the hemmed square, and a short bias cut made in each corner. The four edges are then turned under evenly and hemmed down on to the patch (Figs. 25, 26). Represent this on the blackboard in the different stages.
46. What is a bias cut? Ans. A bias cut is a cut made diagonally across the warp and the woof.
Fig. 25. - A hemmed-on patch. Under or wrong side.
Fig. 26. - A hemmed-on patch. Upper or right side.
47. What is the warp? Ans. The threads that run up and down or lengthwise of the cloth are called the warp.
48. What is the woof ? Ans. The threads that run across the cloth from one selvedge to the other are called the woof. (Show these on the blackboard.)
49. How is a stitched-in patch made? Ans. The worn or torn part is first cut out in a square (see Fig. 28). The straight edges of the hole are made true by a drawn thread; then two adjoining sides are folded evenly together, and a bias cut 1/4 in. is made at each of the four corners, and the edges of the hole thus cut are folded and creased down on the under side 1/4 in. (see dotted lines in Fig. 28). Then a square piece is basted to these creases, so that it lies perfectly smooth at the corners. Be sure to begin and end the basting on the patch, to make smooth and square corners (Figs. 27, 28, 29, 30, 31). Represent this on the blackboard in the different stages.
50. How is an oversewed patch made?
Ans. The torn part is cut out and prepared in the same way as for a stitched-in patch; then the square piece of cloth to be set in is turned down by a thread evenly on one side, and oversewed, on the under side, to one side of the prepared hole from corner to corner. The second, third, and fourth sides are oversewed in the same way. Great care must be taken to turn the edges evenly, so that the patch may be flat when finished (Figs. 32, 33). (Show this on the blackboard.)
51. What is a gusset? Ans. A gusset is a piece of cloth used to strengthen the ends of a seam.