A sconce is a candlestick holder, so made that it has a reflector of brass or copper and is to hang upon the wall. The tools necessary are a riveting hammer, file, metal shears, rivet punch, flat and round-nosed pliers, screwdriver and sheet brass or copper No. 23 gauge.

To make the sconce proceed as follows: First, cut off a piece of brass so that it shall have 1/2 in. extra metal all around; second, with a piece of carbon paper, trace upon the brass lines that shall represent the margin of the sconce proper, also trace the decorative design; third, with a nail set make a series of holes in the extra margin about 3/4 in. apart and large enough to take in a 3/4-in. thin screw; fourth, fasten the metal to a thick board by inserting screws in these holes; fifth, with a twenty-penny wire nail that has had the sharpness of its point filed off, stamp the background of the design promiscuously. By holding the nail about 1/4 in. above the work and striking it with the hammer, at the same time striving to keep its point at 1/4 in. above the metal, very rapid progress can be made. This stamping lowers the background and at the same time raises the design. Sixth, chase or stamp along the border of the design and background using a nail filed to a chisel edge. This is to make a clean sharp division between background and design. Seventh, when the stamping is complete remove the screws and metal from the board and cut off the extra margin with the metal shears. File the edges until they are smooth to the touch.

The drip cup is a piece of brass cut circular and shaped by placing the brass over a hollow in one end of a block. Give the metal a circular motion, at the same time beat it with a round-nosed mallet. Work from the center along concentric rings outward, then reverse.

The candle holders may have two, three, four, or six arms, and are bent to shape by means of the round-nosed pliers. The form of the brackets which support the drip cups may be seen in the illustration. Completed Sconce Shaping the Holders Riveting

Illustration: Completed Sconce Shaping the Holders Riveting

Having pierced the bracket, drip cup, and holder, these three parts are riveted together as indicated in the drawing. It will be found easier usually if the holder is not shaped until after the riveting is done. The bracket is then riveted to the back of the sconce. Small copper rivets are used.

It is better to polish all the pieces before fastening any of together. Metal polish of any kind will do. After the parts have been assembled a lacquer may be applied to keep the metal from tarnishing.