When using a washboard it will continually slip down in the tub. This is considerable annoyance, especially if a large tub is used. The washboard can be kept in place with small metal hooks, as shown in the sketch. Two of these are fastened to the back of the washboard in the right place to keep it at the proper slant. --Contributed by W. A. Jaquythe, Richmond, California.
Illustration: Clip on the Washboard
When cutting a loaf of bread do not slice it from the outer crusted end. Cut through the center, then cut slices from the center toward the ends. The two cut surfaces can be placed together, thus excluding the air and keeping the bread fresh as long as there is any left to slice. --Contributed by L. Alberta Norrell, Augusta, Ga.
A method of making a leather hinge work as well as an ordinary steel butt is to cover the wings with sheet metal. The metal can be fastened with nails or screws over the parts of the leather attached to the wood. Tinplate, iron hoops, zinc or thin brass cut in neat designs will make a leather hinge appear as well as a metal hinge. --Contributed by Tom Hutchinson, Encanto, Cal.
Illustration: Metal Parts Screwed on Leather Hinge
A hot-water bottle held against a porous plaster will assist in quickly removing it from the skin.
For the frame use 3/8-in. round iron, bending it as shown in the diagram and filing a knob on each end, at opposite sides to each other, on which to hook the blade. For the blade an old talking-machine spring or a clock spring will do nicely. Heat the spring enough to take some of the temper out of it, in order to drill the holes in the ends, as shown, and file in the teeth. Make the blade 12 in. long, with 10 teeth to the inch. A and B show how the blade fits on the frame. -Contributed by Willard J. Hays, Summitville, Ohio.
Illustration: Hacksaw Frame and Blade
Take a jump-spark coil and connect it up with a battery and start the vibrator. Then take one outlet wire, R, and connect to one side of a 2-cp. electric lamp, and the other outlet wire, B, hold in one hand, and press all fingers of the other hand on globe at point A. A bright, blue light will come from the wires in the lamp to the surface of the globe where the fingers touch. No shock will be perceptible.
In making models of machines it is often necessary to contrive some method for a 3- or 4-way valve or cock. To make one, secure a pet cock and drill and tap hole through, as shown in the cut. If for 3-way, drill in only to the opening already through, but if for a 4-way, drill through the entire case and valve. Be sure to have valve B turned so as to drill at right angles to the opening through it. After drilling, remove the valve, take off the burr with a piece of emery paper and replace ready for work.
A 1-in. hole was bored in the center of a 2-in. square block. Two finishing nails were driven in, as shown in the sketch. These were connected to terminals of an induction coil. After everything was ready the powder was poured in the hole and a board weighted with rocks placed over the block. When the button is pressed or the circuit closed in some other way the discharge occurs. The distance between the nail points--which must be bright and clean--should be just enough to give a good, fat spark. --Contributed by Geo. W. Fry, San Jose, Cal.
To prevent water colors from crawling, add a few drops of ammonia or lime water, or a solution of sal soda.
If a piece of sealing-wax is supported in a horizontal position by one end, as shown at A in the sketch, it will gradually bend to the shape indicated by the dotted lines B. To attempt bending it with the hands would result in breaking it unless a steady pressure were applied for a long time. This peculiar property is also found in ice.
Bending Cold Sealing-Wax
To lubricate sheet metal mix 1 qt. whale oil, 1 lb. white lead, 1 pt. water and 3 oz. finest graphite. Apply with a brush before the metal enters the dies.
One of the latest optical delusions, and one not easy to explain, is Benham's color top. Cut out the black and white disk shown in the figure, and paste on a piece of stiff cardboard. Trim the edges of the cardboard to match the shape of the disk, and make a pinhole in the center. Cut the pin in half and push it through from the under side until the head of the pin touches the cardboard. Spin slowly in a strong light and some of the lines will appear colored. The colors appear different to different people, and are changed by reversing the rotation.
An Optical Top