The President of the United States is ex-officio Commander-in-chief of the Navy. As his executive he appoints a Secretary of the Navy, a member of his Cabinet, on a four years' term. He also appoints an Assistant Secretary of the Navy, and these two political officials, who are usually civilians, exercise a general control and supervision of the ten departments or bureaus among which the business is distributed. These departments are very similar to those in the British Admiralty, and they are almost all of them under the direction of naval officers. There are also special boards, mostly departmental, who advise either the Secretary of the Navy or the chiefs of the bureaus on technical points.

There is nothing approximating to the headquarters staff which is found in all naval administrations, based on the precedent of the organization of land forces. In this respect the naval administration of the United States and Great Britain differ from almost all the rest. With regard to the estimates, the chiefs of the various bureaus prepare and make annually reports which are published, and in these reports they make recommendations with estimates of cost. The Secretary of the Navy also makes an annual report, summarizing the reports of his subordinates, with his own recommendations, which are submitted to Congress in the shape of Bills, which, being passed by the House of Representatives and the Senate, and approved by the President, become law. The United States Navy is manned by voluntary enlistment.

finance. The proposed estimates for 1904-5 total $102,866,449, those for 1903-4 having been $79,039,331. It is proposed to devote to new construction the sum of $28,826,860.


The number of officers and men on the effective list of the United States Navy is 29,838, inclusive of 7,000 marines. There is a reserve in course of formation, but it is not yet in working order.

The executive officers of the United States Navy are distributed as follows: - 1 admiral, 1 vice-admiral, 21 rear-admirals, 73 captains, 114 commanders, 172 lieutenant-commanders, 350 lieutenants, 100 second-lieutenants, 130 ensigns, 90 naval cadets at sea.

materiel. The strength in ships of the United States Navy built, building and projected, is separately treated.


The Government dockyards in the United States are situated as follows: -


One dock takes any ship; two smaller. Norfolk, Va. - One dock takes any ship; one smaller. Mare Island, Cal. - One dock takes any ship. Boston, Mass. - One small dock. League Island, Pa. - One large wooden dock. Portsmouth, N. H. - One small dock.

- Hazell's Annual, 1904.