Messrs. Müthel & Lütche, of Berlin, recommend the following process for the manufacture of varnish: The oils are treated by gases or gaseous mixtures that have previously been submitted to the action of electric discharges. The strongly oxidized oxygenated compounds that are formed under such circumstances give rise, at a proper elevation of temperature, to compounds less rich in oxygen, and the oxygen that is set free acts upon the fatty acid that it is proposed to treat. A mixture of equal parts of chlorine and steam may be very advantageously employed, as well as anhydrous sulphuric acid and water, or oxygen, anhydrous sulphuric acid and protoxide of nitrogen, nitrogen, oxygen, and hydrogen, protoxide of nitrogen and air, or oxygen, and so on.
The apparatus is shown in section in the accompanying engraving; a is a steam-pipe running from the boiler to the motor. From this pipe branch conduits, b, that enter the vessels, B, in which the treatment is effected, and that run spirally through the oil. At the lower part of the vessel, B, there is tube wound into a flat spiral, and containing a large number of exceedingly small apertures.
The oxidizing apparatus is shown at p. The gaseous mixture enters through the tube, n, traverses the apparatus, p, and enters the vessel, B, through the tubes, g and D. Fig. 2 gives the details of the oxidizing apparatus, which consists of two concentric glass tubes, A and F, soldered at x. A is closed beneath and held in a cylinder, C; F contains a small aperture through which passes a tube, E. The gaseous mixture enters through the latter, traverses the annular space between the tubes, A and F, and then makes its exit through H, whence it goes to a similar apparatus placed alongside of the other. The shaded parts of the engraving represent bodies that are good conductors of electricity and that communicate with the two poles of any electrice source whatever.
FIGS. 1 AND 2.
The operation is as follows: After opening the tube, e, linseed oil is introduced into the vessel, B, until the latter is half full, and, after this, e is closed and the worm, S, is allowed to raise the temperature to between 60° and 80°. Then the cock of the tube, d, which communicates with an air pump, is opened, and the pressure is diminished to about 730 mm. of mercury. At this moment the oxidizing apparatus are put in communication with an induction bobbin that is interposed in the circuit of a dynamo, while through the tube, n, there is made to enter a mixture of equal parts (in volume) of sulphurous acid, oxygen, and air. At the same time, the cock of the tube, g, is opened, while the stirrer, T, is set in motion. In this way we obtain, in a much shorter time than by ordinary processes, a very liquid, transparent varnish, which, when exposed to the air, quickly hardens. It is possible, with the same process, to employ a mixture (in volumes) of two parts of protoxide of nitrogen with one and a half parts of atmospheric air, or even protoxide of nitrogen alone.
When it is judged that the operation is finished, the tube, g, is opened, the stirrer is stopped, and the tube, c, is opened after d has been closed. The steam then forces the varnish to pass through the tube, f, and traverse the washing apparatus, which is filled half full of water, that is slightly ammoniacal, and is heated by a circulation of steam, S. Finally, the product, washed and free from every trace of acid is collected upon making its exit from the tube, h. - La Lumiere Electrique.