Black wool dresses for renewing and checked goods, with the check not covered by the first operation, are operated upon as follows:
Preparation or mordant for eight black dresses for renewing the color.
2 oz. Chrome. 2 " Argol or Tartar.
Or without argol or tartar, but I think their use is beneficial. Boil twenty minutes, lift, rinse through two waters.
To prepare dye boiler, put in 2 lb. logwood, boil twenty minutes. Clear the face same way as before described. Those with cotton and made-up dresses sewn with cotton same operation as before mentioned, using half the quantity of stuffs, and working cold throughout. Since the introduction of aniline black, some dyers use it in place of logwood both for wool and cotton. It answers very well for dippers, substituting 2 oz. aniline black for every pound logwood required. In dyeing light bottoms it is more expensive than logwood, even though the liquor be kept up, and, in my opinion, not so clear and black.
Silk and wool dresses, poplins, and woolen dresses trimmed with silk, etc., for black. - Before the dyeing operations, steep the goods in hand-heat soda water, rinse through two warm waters. Discharge blues, mauves, etc., with diluted aquafortis (nitric acid). A skilled dyer can perform this operation without the least injury to the goods. This liquor is kept in stoneware, or a vessel made of caoutchouc composition, or a large stone hollowed out of five slabs of stone, forming the bottom and four sides, braced together, and luted with caoutchouc, forming a water-tight vessel. The latter is the most convenient vessel, as it can be repaired. The others when once rent are past repair. The steam is introduced by means of a caoutchouc pipe, and when brought to the boil the pipe is removed. After the colors are discharged, rinse through three warm waters. They are then ready to receive the mordant and the dye.
The aquafortis vessel to be outside the dye-house, or, if inside, to be provided with a funnel to carry away the nitrous fumes, as it is dangerous to other colors.
Preparation or mordant for eight dresses, silk and wool mixed, for black.
4 lb. Copperas. ½ " Bluestone. ½ " Tartar.
Bring to the boil, dissolve the copperas, etc., shut off steam, enter the goods, handle gently (or else they will be faced, i.e., look gray on face when dyed) for one hour, lift, air, rinse through three warm waters.
To prepare dye boiler, bring to boil, put in 8 lb. logwood (previously boiled), 1 lb. black or brown oil soap, shut off steam, enter goods, gently handle for half an hour, add another pound of soap (have the soap dissolved ready), and keep moving for another half hour, lift, finish in hand-heat soap. If very heavy, run through lukewarm water slightly acidulated with vitriol, rinse, hydro-extract, and hang in stove. Another method to clear them: Make up three lukewarm waters, in first put some bleaching liquor, in second a little vitriol, handle these two, and rinse through the third, hydro-extract, and hang in stove.
This is the method employed generally in small dye-works for all dresses for black; their lots are so small. This preparation can be kept up, if care is taken that none of the sediment of the copperas (oxide of iron) is introduced when charging, as the oxide of iron creates stains. This also happens when the water used contains iron in quantity or impure copperas. The remedy is to substitute half a gill of vitriol in place of tartar.
Dye the silk and wool as before described, and also the cotton in the manner previously mentioned.
Another method to dye the mixed silk and wool and cotton dresses black, four dresses. - Bring boiler to the boil, put in 3 or 4 oz. aniline black, either the deep black or the blue black or a mixture of the two, add ¼ gill hydrochloric acid or sulphuric acid, or 3 oz. oxalic acid, shut off steam, enter, and handle for half an hour, lift, rinse through water, dye the cotton in the manner previously described. - Dyer.