Whatever may be the position of British pharmacists in comparison with those of other countries, it cannot be said that they have paid the attention to the analysis of urine which the subject has received from pharmacists on the Continent. Considering the importance of the subject, this curious neglect can only be attributed to the fact that the pharmacist in Great Britain is but slowly attaining the position of chemical expert to the physician, which his foreign confrere has so long held with credit and even distinction. In France, for example, M. Méhu, whose name is familiar to readers of this journal, is looked upon as one of the leading authorities on morbid urine and its analysis, and yet a list of goodly pharmaceutical papers shows that, as the medical analyst, he has not forgotten his connection with pure pharmacy.

There are several points about urinary analysis which entitle it to a very high position in the estimation of pharmacists. In the first place, the physician is no more likely to be fonder of the test tube than of the pestle, of analyzing urine than of compounding his own medicines. Leading men in the profession are more and more setting their faces against the dispensing doctor, and there are numbers among them who admit that they succeed no better as analysts than they do as dispensers.

Some old fashioned practitioners trouble themselves very little about their patients' urine, except, perhaps, in respect of sugar and albumen. On the other hand, numbers of leading physicians, including especially those highly educated gentlemen who cultivate a consulting practice, are in the habit of pushing urinary analysis almost to an excess. One well-known specialist of the writer's acquaintance, with an extensive West End practice, makes quantitative determinations of urea, uric acid, and total acidity, in addition to conducting other diagnostic experiments, on every occasion that he interviews his patients. By this means he has accumulated in his case books a mass of data which he considers most valuable as an aid to diagnosis, and through that to successful treatment.

Pharmacists are proverbially neat-handed, as Mr. Martindale would say, and their habit of conducting dispensing operations which involve the dexterous manipulation of very small quantities of material fit them admirably to undertake volumetric and other rapid analytical determinations. Compared with the doctor there is no doubt that in this matter the chemist is facile princeps, and from the nature of their respective occupations such could only have been expected. A few chemists throughout the country lay themselves out to save their local doctors from unwelcome test tube practice, and these almost to a man find it pay. Some charge a handsome fee to patients, and a small one when the analysis comes through the physician. Others find it to their interest to furnish medical men with qualitative reports on sugar or albumen gratuitously. Although this practice has certain obvious drawbacks, if a doctor sends his prescriptions to a chemist, the latter is often willing to gratuitously perform his chemical work. In the present article we propose to describe briefly but fully the methods which have been found of most value in practice.

Preliminary Operations

It is the practice of some physicians to direct the patient to preserve all the urine passed in twenty-four hours, and to forward this in one bottle for analysis. Others, again, merely send a small sample of "morning" and "evening" urine in separate phials, desiring only a comparative report. In the former case the volume should be accurately measured, and the quantity noted either in fluid ounces or cubic centimeters before commencing the analysis. This need not be done if small samples only are received. The color should be noted. It varies greatly, through every shade of yellow and amber to dark brown, with a tinge of green or red, if the coloring matter of bile or blood is present. Also note relative transparency or cloudiness, specific gravity, and reaction, as all these observations are useful in diagnosis. Odor is not quite so important. The specific gravity should be taken at about 60° F. in an ordinary specific gravity bottle, or more conveniently by means of a good urinometer. In the latter case it is very important to have an instrument of known accuracy, many of those in the market being valueless. Urinometers of glass, though fragile, are decidedly more cleanly and less liable to get out of order than the gilded brass instruments carried in the pocket by many physicians. Mr. J.J. Hicks, of 8 Hatton Garden, E.C., manufactures a very creditable "patent urinometer" at an extremely low cost. Healthy urine has a density of from 1.015 to 1.025; but variations from this range are common.

Preliminary Operations 611 8b

A fair quantity of the urine, after shaking, should be placed in a tall conical glass vessel, to allow easy collection of the precipitate for subsequent, microscopical examination. If an abundant amorphous deposit of a fawn or pink - from uroerythrin - color slowly settles and is readily diffused, urates in excess can be anticipated. Their presence is proved by the readiness with which they dissolve on warming with the supernatant urine to about the temperature of the blood. No difficulty is experienced if small quantities of albumen are present, as that body is not coagulated until the temperature rises much higher. A sandy precipitate of free uric acid will not dissolve on warming the urine, and its identity can further be determined by means of the microscope, or by applying a well-known color-reaction. A grain or so is oxidized into reddish alloxan and alloxantin by carefuly evaporating with a few drops of strong nitric acid on a piece of porcelain. A little ammonia is then added, when the fine purple murexide stain will be produced.