In making electrical diagrams it is necessary to frequently represent a battery. It requires too much time to make a sketch or drawing of a battery. Besides this, the drawing of any particular kind of battery might be misleading. A sign representing the galvanic battery has been universally adopted. It consists of a long, thin mark or dash, representing the carbon electrode, and a shorter, thick mark representing the zinc electrode, thus: Battery Symbol
Where more cells are required, this sign is repeated once for each cell, thus: Battery Symbol 2
The galvanometer is represented thus: Galvanometer Symbol

By the use of the battery and a few articles such as may be found anywhere, in addition to the pieces shown in Fig. 2, all the experiments here described may be performed. As these pieces are shown half size in the diagrams, Fig. 2, and about full size in the perspective views, it will be unnecessary to give dimensions. The bobbins, A A, are wound with No. 24 double cotton-covered magnet wire, the terminals being soldered to eyes formed of pieces of spring wire bent so as to form helical coils of two turns each, with the ends inserted in holes drilled in heads of the spools. These coiled wires answer a good purpose in making electrical connections. The magnet frame, B, consisting of the cores and the yoke formed integrally of a single soft gray iron casting, is adapted to receive the bobbins, A A, to form an electro-magnet. The yoke of the magnet is provided with a thumb-screw, e, for securing the magnet to the motor frame, C. The latter is furnished with a base piece, f, a slotted standard for receiving the clamping screw, e, of the magnet, and the standards, g, in which is journaled the armature, h, on a wire extending through both the standards and the armature.

The armature, h, consists of an oblong rectangular soft iron frame having at one end a small pulley and at the other end an elliptical boss, i, which is arranged obliquely to form in conjunction with the spring, j, a circuit closer and opener, which closes the circuit twice during each revolution of the armature, just as one of its side bars is approaching the poles of the magnet and breaks it as the bar comes opposite the poles of the magnet.

The spring, j, is bent into a loop and its lower end is inserted in a wooden plug driven into a hole in the base piece, f.

In the upper part of Fig. 2 are shown two telegraph instruments less the bobbins. Each instrument (Fig. 14) consists of a wooden base, k, a right angled soft iron bar, l, having the central part of its upper end brought to an obtuse angle, an armature, m, fitted loosely to the angled end of the bar, a notched brass standard, n, for limiting the movement of the armature, a retractile spring for lifting the armature, a spring key, o, pivotally secured to the base by a common wood screw, and a contact point projecting from the base under the key.

Besides these there is a D shaped block, to answer as a frame to the galvanometer, a common pocket compass, E, fitted to a circular cavity in the top of the block, D, a permanent U magnet, F, a bundle of soft iron wires, G, and two copper strips, H.

Apparatus Drawings