If water is obtained from municipal supplies and paid for at meter rates, then the cost will be strictly according to the consumption which will be nearly according to the number of engine-miles. Almost the only waste would be that occasioned by blowing off steam. Under such circumstances the increase in this item would be very nearly 100%, but, on the other hand, where the supply is obtained from the company's own plant, there is hardly any appreciable increase in expense due to the extra draft on the tanks. Of course the cost of pumping would be somewhat affected. Considering that the sum of Items 83, 84, and 85 are only 1.06%, very little error would be involved if we consider as an average figure that this item will be increased the same as fuel, 44%.

144. Item 88 includes the wages of trainmen other than enginemen. Their wages are paid on very much the same basis as the enginemen, which means usually that small additions of distance will not affect their wages. Large additions will affect them 100%.

145. Item 89

Train-supplies and expenses include a very large matter of small subitems, the consumption of which is partly a matter of mere time and partly a matter of mileage. It is sufficiently precise in this case to say that 50% of these subitems will be affected directly as the mileage.

146. Items 90, 91. Signals, Flagmen, And Gatemen

The necessity for flagmen and switchmen may be said in general to increase with the mileage, although it might readily happen that a given change in distance which is under consideration might not effect the slightest change in this item. It is quite unlikely that the number of switchmen would be affected. It is probable that 25% of this item is sufficient as an average figure.

147. Item 94

Telegraph expenses include the wages of operators at stations (which are unaffected) and the special expenses due to offices and telegraph stations and to operating the line, the maintenance of the line being charged to Item 14. Although it will theoretically require more battery material to transmit telegrams over a longer line, the added expense is so very slight that it may be utterly ignored.

Table XXIV. Effect Of Operating Expenses Of Great And Small Changes In Distance

No. of item.

Normal average.

Per cent affected.

Cost per mile, per cent.

Great.

Small.

Great.

Small.

*1-7

14.61

100

100

14.61

14.61

8

0.06

0

0

0

0

9,10

1.77

100

0

1.77

0

11-13

0.82

100

100

0.82

0.82

14

0.19

50

50

0.10

0.10

15

0.02

0

0

0

0

16

1.81

20

0

0.36

0

17

0.20

0

0

0

0

18-21

0.45

100

0

0.45

0

22,23

0.16

0

0

0

0

20.09

18.11

15.53

24

0.64

100

50

0.64

0.32

25-27

8.62

42

42

3.62

3.62

28-30

0.01

0

0

0

0

31-33

2.14

20

20

0.43

0.43

34-36

10.15

36

36

3.65

3.65

37-39

0.01

0

0

0

0

40-42

0.08

0

0

0

0

43-45

0.34

36

36

0.12

0.12

46-50

0.72

100

50

0.72

0.36

51,52

0.03

0

0

0

0

22.74

9.18

8.50

53-60

3.08

0

0

0

0

61-79

17.92

0

0

0

0

80

6.08

100

0

6.08

0

81

1.72

0

0

0

0

82-85

11.41

44

44

5.02

5.02

86,87

0.06

0

0

0

0

88

6.40

100

0

6.40

0

89

1.78

50

50

0.89

0.89

90,91

0.85

25

25

0.21

0.21

92

0.05

0

0

0

0

93

0.25

100

100

0.25

0.25

94-98

1.06

0

0

0

0

99-103

2.84

100

100

2.84

2.84

104,105

0.02

0

0

0

0

50.44

21.69

9.21

106-116

3.65

0

0

0

0

100.00

48.98

33.24

* For the significance of the items, see Table IX.

Items 86 and 87, operating power plants and purchased power, which depend on electric traction, are ignored. Item 92, drawbridge operation, and Item 95, operating floating equipment, are considered to be unaffected. Items 96 to 98 are small miscellaneous expenses which are considered unaffected, as are likewise Items 104 and 105, the operation of joint tracks and facilities. This leaves Items 93 and 99 to 103, which are the fortuitous expenses due to wrecks, damage and mishaps. While it cannot be definitely predicted that these will happen with any stated regularity, it is only proper to consider that they will increase with added distance and to charge them as strictly proportional to distance.

The general expenses, Items 106 to 116, are considered to be unaffected.