Table VIII. Operating Expenses Per Train-Mile On Large And Small Roads (1904 And 1910)

Mileage.

Operating expenses per train-mile.

Ratio expenses to earnings, per cent.

1904.

1910.

1904.

1910.

1904.

1910.

Whole United States.. ..

220,112

240,439

1.314

1.489

67.79

66.29

Canadian Pacific.......

8,332

10,271

1.320

1.504

68.72

65.41

C. B.&Q.............

8,326

9,040

1.313

1.710

64.35

71.71

Chicago & Northwestern

7,412

7,629

1.136

1.306

66.61

70.31

Southern Railway......

7,197

7,050

1.048

1.234

70.30

67.43

C.R. I.&P...........

6,761

7,396

1.199

1.344

72.90

73.07

Northern Pacific ........

5,619

6,189

1.392

1.824

52.26

61.71

A.T & S.F.........

5,031

7,460

1.305

1.626

60.05

64.33

Great Northern ........

4,489

7,147

1.464

1.808

49.72

60.53

Illinois Central ............

4,374

4,551

1.107

1.409

70.02

74.84

Atlantic Coast Line ...............

4,229

4,491

0.984

1.213

58.95

62.44

Average of ten ...................

.................

...................

1.227

1.498

63.39

67.18

Montpelier & Wells River

44

50

1.169

1.430

80.73

75.08

Somerset Railway Co.* .

42

94

0.802

1.314

59.37

76.65

Huntingdon & Broadtop

Mountain .......

66

70

0.950

2.052

52.10

96.40

Lehigh & New England.

96

170

0.793

2.045

69.80

62.84

Ligonier Valley........

11

16

1.427

1.480

69.33

49.15

Newburgh, Dutchess & Connecticut.........

59

• • ••

0.922

85.09

Susquehanna&New York

55

80

1.368

1.028

78.47

77.81

Detroit & Charlevoix *..

51

51

1.424

1.010

67.52

99.53

Harriman & Northeastern ...............

20

20

2.162

1.733

79.26

63.70

Galveston, Houston &

Henderson ............

50

50

1.556

1.759

47.27

70.37

Average of ten (or nine)

................

.................

1.257

1.539

68.89

74.61

In 1904 the ten large roads were the ten longest in the country. With a few exceptions they are still the first ten. The ten small roads for 1904 were chosen almost at random except that the operating mileage in 1904 was invariably less than 100 miles and the roads were all classified as "independent roads," so that their operating expenses need not be considered as being affected by their relation to any larger road controlling them. Since then the roads marked (*) have been made subsidiary to other roads, while the Newburgh, Dutchess & Connecticut has been merged into the Central New England and no separate figures are now available. It may be noted that, although the average cost per train-mile is more uniform in the case of the larger railroad systems, as might have been expected, and that the variations from the average are much greater in the case of the small roads, the variations doubtless being due to special and local conditions, nevertheless the small roads show operating expenses per train-mile which are sometimes above and sometimes below the average values for the whole country or for the larger systems, but their average does not greatly differ from that of the average of the large systems. Without attempting to elaborate the explanation of the causes of this uniformity it may be seen in general that although the larger railroads have very large expenses, which on the smaller roads are every small (if they exist at all), yet, since the divisor (the number of trains) on the large road is so Very large, the quotient, which is the average cost per mile, tends to become uniform. It should also be noted that the ratio of earnings to expenses on the ten large systems and on the ten small roads remains at a fairly constant figure.

Table IX. Summary Showing Classification Of Operating Expenses For The Year Ending June 30, 1910, And Proportion Of Each Class To The Total. Large Roads

Operating expenses.

Amount.

Per cent

Maintenance of WaY and Structures.

1

Superintendence of way and structures ...............

$17,058,473

8,861,334

55,259,585

16,435,349

20,225,436

134,275,440

8,297,715

1,147,140

30,471,313

1,086,702

6,105,192

0.957

2

Ballast .....................

0.497

3

Ties...........................................

3.099

4

Rails ..............

0.922

5

Other track material .................

1.134

6

Roadway and track .....................

7.531

7

Removal of snow and ice ..............

0.465

8

Tunnels ...............

0.064

9

Bridges, trestles, and culverts.....................

1.709

10

Over and under grade crossings ...................

0.061

11

Grade crossings, fences, cattle guards, and signs.....

0.343

12

Snow and sand fences and snowsheds..............

385,730 8,175,641 3,407,627

367,400

32,181,561

3,537,331

5,141,983

1,886,865

714,637

333,056 12,151,280

0.022

13

Signals and interlocking plants....................

0.459

14

Telegraph and telephone lines.....................

0.191

15

Electric power transmission.......................

0.021

16

Buildings, fixtures, and grounds...................

1.805

17

Docks and wharves..............................

0.198

18

Roadway tools and supplies ..............

0.288

19

Injuries to persons...............................

0.106

20

Stationery and printing ..............

0.040

21

Other expenses..................................

0.018

22

Maintaining joint tracks, yds., and other facilities, Dr.

0.681

23

Maintaining joint tracks, yds., and other facilities, Cr.

9,241,467

0.618

Total maintenance of way and structures

$358,265,293

20.093

Maintenance of Equipment.

24

Superintendence of equipment ...............

$11,457,025

0.643

25

Steam locomotives - repairs .............

138,548,039

7.770

26

Steam locomotives - renewals ..............

3,272,370

0.184

27

Steam locomotives - depreciation ...........

11,755,130

0.659

28

Electric locomotives - repairs ...............

217,182

0.012

29

Electric locomotives-renewals....................

30

Electric locomotives - depreciation.................

22,341

0.001

31

Passenger train-cars - repairs ..........

30,695,229

1.721

32

Passenger-train cars - renewals....................

1,608,124

0.090

33

Passenger-train cars - depreciation.................

5,827,607

0.327

34

Freight-train cars - repairs........................

137,846,373

7 731

35

Freight-train cars - renewals......................

12,423,890

0.697

36

Freight-train cars - depreciation...................

30,712,546

1 722

37

Electric equipment of cars - repairs................

161,624

0 009

38

Electric equipment of cars - renewals ............

27,000

0.002

39

Electric equipment of cars - depreciation ...............

42,996

0.003

40

Floating equipment - repairs......................

924,976

0.052

41

Floating equipment - renewals....................

48,144

0.003

42

Floating equipment - depreciation .........

381,129

0.021

43

Work equipment - repairs ...............

4,461,503

0.250

44

Work equipment - renewals.......................

754,536

0 042

45

Work equipment - depreciation ....................

899,128

0.050

46

Shop machinery and tools........................

9,439.056

0 529

47

Power plant equipment..........................

167,182

0 010

48

Injuries to persons...............................

1,370,388

0.077

49

Stationery and Printing..........................

978,744

0 055

50

Other expenses..................................

841,019

0 047

51

Maintaining joint equipment at terminals, Dr.......

1,392,411

0.078

52

Maintaining joint equipment at terminals, Cr ..........................

840,895

0.047

Total maintenance of equipment ...........................

$405,434,797

22.738

Operating expenses.

Amount.

Per cent

Tbaffic.

53

Superintendence of traffic

$13,960,333

0.783

54

Outside agencies

19,592,049

1.099

55

Advertising

8,347,914

0.468

56

Traffic associations

1,519,215

0.085

57

Fast freight lines

3,984,644

0.224

58

Industrial and immigration bureaus

931,212

0.052

59

Stationery and printing

6,476,861

0.363

60

Other expenses

120,052

0.007

Total traffic expenses

$54,932,280

3.081

Transportation.

'

61

Superintendence of transportation

21,365,630

1.198

62

Dispatching trains

16,250,243

0.911

63

Station employees

123,062,288

6.902

64

Weighing and car-service associations

2,389,673

0.134

65

Coal and ore docks

2,542,882

0.143

66

Station supplies and expenses

10,302,118

0.578

67

Yardmasters and their clerks

14,563,707

0.817

68

Yard conductors and brakemen

48,211,995

2.704

69

Yard switch and signal tenders

3,888,708

0.218

70

Yard supplies and expenses

1,249,844

0.070

71

Yard enginemen

27,890,126

1.564

72

Enginehouse expenses - yard

8,106,787

0.454

73

Fuel for yard locomotives

28,306,698

1.587

74

Water for yard locomotives

1,754,359

0.098

75

Lubricants for yard locomotives

576,693

0.032

76

Other supplies for yard locomotives

644,336

0.036

77

Operating joint yards and terminals - Dr

20,875,654

1.171

78

Operating joint yards and terminals - Cr

12,998,087

0.727

79

Motormen

477,404

0.027

80

Road enginemen

108,471,661

6.083

81

Enginehouse expenses - road

30,580,907

1.715

82

Fuel for road locomotives

184,588,622

10.352

83

Water for road locomotives

11,624,756

0.652

84

Lubricants for road locomotives

3,573,631

0.200

85

Other supplies for road locomotives

3,708,286

0.208

86

Operating power plants

726,742

0.041

87

Purchased power

413,783

0.023

88

Road trainmen

114,122,534

6.400

89

Train supplies and expenses

31,795,761

1.783

90

Interlockers and block and other signals - operation ..

8,718,693

0.490

91

Crossing flagmen and garemen

6,319,183

0.354

92

Drawbridge operation

897,495

0.050

93

Clearing wrecks

4,488,082

0.252

94

Telegraph and telephone - operation

5,820,358

0.326

95

Operating floating equipment

2,876,653

0.161

96

Express service

597

*

97

Stationery and Printing

8,113,694

0.455

98

Other expenses

2,060,571

0.117

99

Loss and damage - freight

21,756,671

1.220

100

Loss and damage - baggage

360,244

0.020

101

Damage to property

4,791,324

0.269

102

Damage to stock on right of way

3,650,544

0.206

103

Injuries to persons

20,139,285

1.129

104

Operating joint tracks and facilities - Dr

4,625,115

0.259

105

Operating joint tracks and facilities - Cr

4,357,256

0.244

Total transportation expenses

$899,328,994

50.438

* Less than 0.0001 per cent.

Operating expenses.

Amount.

Per cent

General.

106

Salaries and expenses of general officers ............

$9,206,835

0.516

107

Salaries and expenses of clerks and attendants.....

25,167,569

1.411

108

General office supplies and expenses.............

3,295,407

0.185

109

Law expenses .................

10,845,738

0.608

110

Insurance ......................

7,551,789

0.424

111

Relief department expenses ..................

680,843

0.038

112

Pensions ..................

2,007,818

0.113

113

Stationery and printing ....................

2,853,808

0.160

114

Other expenses ....................

3,006,289

0.169

115

General administration, joint tracks, yards, and terminals - Dr ........................

655,875

0.037

116

General administration, joint tracks, yards, and terminals - Cr .................

198,878

0.011

Total general expenses ....................

$65,079,593

3.650

Recapitulation of expenses:

I. Maintenance of way and structures ............

$358,265,293

20.093

II. Maintenance of equipment ................

405,434,797

22.738

III. Traffic expenses ....................

54,932,280

3.081

IV. Transportation expenses .....................

899,328,994

50.438

V. General expenses ..................

65,079,593

3.650

Total operating expenses .....................

$1,783,040,957

100.000

The "Credit items" 23, 52, 78, 105, and 116 represent receipts from other roads, from switching and terminal companies (which are not included in this or the following table) or from other sources. The amounts and percentages must be deducted from the other expenses to obtain the net expenses.

Table Ixa. Summary Showing Classification Of Operating Expenses For The Year Ending June 30,1910, And Proportion Of Each Class To The Total. Small Roads

Operating expenses.

Per cent

Corresponding items in Table IX.

I. Maintenance of WaY and Structures.

1

Superintendence of way and structures ............

1.195

1

2

Maintenance of roadway and track ...................

19.752

2-7

3

Maintenance of track structures ...............

2.991

8-15

4

Maintenance of buildings, docks and wharves ...................

1.191

16,17

5

Injuries to persons ........................

0.042

19

6

Other maintenance of way and structures expenses. . .

0.860

18, 20, 21

7

Maintaining joint tracks, yards, and other facilities.

0.469

22

8

Maintaining joint tracks, yards, and other facilities.

0.668

23

Total, maintenance of way and structures ...................

25.832

Operating expenses.

Per cent.

Corresponding items in Table IX.

II. Maintenance of Equipment.

9

Superintendence of equipment ............

0.919

24

10

Locomotives - repairs ...............

6.275

25,28

11

Cars - repairs ................

6.510

31, 34, 37

12

Floating equipment - repairs .............

0.044

40

13

Work equipment - repairs ..............

0.165

43

14

Equipment - renewals ....................

0.608

26, 29, 32, 35, 38, 41, 44

15

Equipment - depreciation ...............

4.214

27, 30, 33, 36, 39, 42, 45

16

Injuries to persons...............................

0.025

48

17

Other maintenance of equipment expenses ..........

0.785

46, 47, 49, 50

18

Maintaining joint equipment at terminals - Dr ............

0.026

51

19

Maintaining joint equipment at terminals - Cr.......

0.06S

52

Total, maintenance of equipment ..............

19.508

III. Traffic Expenses.

20

Traffic expenses .................

2.418

53-60

IV. Transportation Expenses.

21

Superintendence and dispatching trains .............

2.200

61,62

22

Station service .................

6.185

63-66

23

Yard enginemen.................................

0.823

71

24

Other yard employees ............

1.259

67-69

25

Fuel for yard locomotives........................

1.276

73

26

All other yard expenses..........................

0.376

70, 72, 74-76

27

Operating joint yards and terminals - Dr...........

0.743

77

28

Operating joint yards and terminals - Cr...........

78

29

Road enginemen and motormen...................

5.977

79,80

30

Fuel for road locomotives........................

11.184

82

31

Other road locomotive supplies and expenses........

2.850

81, 83-87

32

Road trainmen ............

6.313

88

33

Train supplies and expenses ............

0.936

89

34

Injuries to persons ..................

0.619

103

35

Loss and damage ............

0.471

99, 100

36

Other casualties.................................

0.616

93, 101, 102

37

All other transportation expenses ...............

1.916

90-92, 94-98

38

Operating joint tracks and facilities - Dr...........

0.481

104

39

Operating joint tracks and facilities - Cr...........

0.1S5

105

43.472

V. General Expenses.

40

Administration ..............

7.088

106-109

41

Insurance ....................

0.749

110

42

Other general expenses ............

0.968

111-114

43

General administration, joint tracks, yards, and terminals - Dr...................................

0.031

115

44

General administration, joint tracks, yards, and terminals - Cr ...........................

0.066

116

8.770

51. Itemized Classification Of Operating Expenses

The reports made to the U. S. Interstate Commerce Commission are given according to such a standardized system that the entire operating expenses of the railroads of the country (with the exception of a small fraction of one per cent) may be classified. Although such detailed figures are only published with respect to systems or roads operating more than 500 miles, the averages for all the railroads are published each year. The comparison of the percentages for each year are very instructive, especially when it is possible to trace the cause of the fluctuations in those percentages. The classification itself is shown in Table IX. The variations in the principal items, especially those in which the engineer is interested, will be briefly discussed. Many of the items are directly affected by differences in operating management, and many of them are affected by such changes in alinement as an engineer may be able to make. Such items call for particular study on the part of the engineer. On the other hand, many of the smaller items are almost in the nature of fixed charges which will not be materially affected by any change which may be made by the locating engineer or by any slight change of policy in the operation of the road. Such items will only be materially affected by some radical difference in the scale of operation of the road.