This section is from the book "British Wild Flowers - In Their Natural Haunts Vol5-6", by A. R. Horwood. Also available from Amazon: A British Wild Flowers In Their Natural Haunts.
The habitat of this plant is limestone scars, etc. The stem is finely furrowed, stiffly hairy. The radical leaves are bright-green, membranous, the outer elliptic or oblong, the inner lance-shaped, acute, narrowed to the softly hairy leaf-stalk, acutely toothed below, stiffly hairy both sides, fringed with hairs on the border. The 1-3 stem-leaves are chiefly stalkless, narrow, broad to lance-shaped, long-pointed, sharply toothed. The panicle is tufted, corymbose, with spreading branches, straight-based, ascending, with 2-3 flowers, corymbose, longer than the acladium. The stalks bear brac-teoles at the tip, and are woolly-felted, glandular. The 6-15 heads are blackish, narrow, cylindrical, slender. The phyllaries are numerous, blunt, black, glandular, woolly-felted. The ligules are hairless. The styles are yellow or dingy. The margins of the receptacle pits are slightly raised, toothed. The plant is \\ ft. high, flowering in Julv and August, and is a herbaceous perennial.
The habitat of this plant is rocky cliffs. The stem is hollow, purplish, stifflv hairy below, glandular above. The radical leaves are oval or oblong, entire or toothed, the inner oblong to lance-shaped, acute, toothed, stiffly hairy below. The 1-3 stem-leaves are lance-shaped, toothed. The panicle has the lower, erect to spreading branches in a raceme, with 3-4 heads, the upper close, nearly erect, rigid, longer than the acladium. The 5-15 heads are small, black, egg-shaped, as if paired, from the short secondary flower-stalk. The stalks are straight, woolly-felted, glandular. The phyllaries are few, broad, blunt, pale-bordered, glandular. The styles ate yellow. The margins of the receptacle pits are toothed, with awl-like teeth. The plant is 1-1 1/2 ft. high, flowering in July and August, and is a herbaceous perennial.
The habitat of this plant is mountain cliffs. The stem is short, stout, less leafy than the last, shaggy. The basal leaves are few, forming a rosette, inversely egg-shaped, blunt, narrowed to the shaggy leaf-stalk, toothed, stiffly hairy on the surfaces and margins. The 2-3 stem-leaves are elliptic, or the upper egg-shaped, toothed like the basal. The panicle has 1-2 erect to spreading lower branches, the upper in a sort of umbel. The 4-8 heads are broadlv egg-shaped, blunt below. The flower-stalks are nearly straight, woolly-felted, glandular. The phyllaries are linear, lance-shaped, blunt, the inner narrow, acute, with a pale border, thickly glandular. The ligules are golden-yellow, hairless. The styles are yellow. The pappus is tinged reddish-brown.
The habitat of this plant is bushy places. The stem is simple or branched, finely furrowed, stiffly hairy, woolly-felted, glandular, hairy. The radical leaves are green, the earliest short, oval to lance-shaped, blunt, soon fading, the later inversely lance-shaped, rounded above or blunt-pointed, narrowed to the stiffly hairy leaf-stalk, toothed, hairy both sides and on the border. The 3-10 stem-leaves are stalkless or nearly so, like the inner basal, the intermediate egg-shaped to lance-shaped, the uppermost egg-shaped, toothed. The panicle is rigid, in a sort of corymb, the lower branches long, nearly erect, in a corymb, the upper shorter, arching, longer than the acladium. The stalks are woolly-felted, glandular, hairy. The few heads are dark, cylindric, blunt below. The outer phyllaries are short, loose, woolly-felted at the border, the inner linear, lance-shaped, narrowed above, with a pale margin, the innermost nearly acute, hairy, glandular. The tips of the ligules are fringed with hairs. The styles are livid. The plant is 1-2 ft. high, flowering in July and August, and is a herbaceous perennial.