This section is from the book "British Wild Flowers - In Their Natural Haunts Vol5-6", by A. R. Horwood. Also available from Amazon: A British Wild Flowers In Their Natural Haunts.
The habitat of this species is wet sandy places, especially near the sea. The plant has the sedge habit more or less. The rootstock is far-creeping. The stem is clothed with transversely blunt sheaths at the base. The lower glumes are brown, egg-shaped, almost surrounding the spikelet, somewhat acute, the edges narrow, pale. The nut is pear-shaped, blunt, flattened at the border, the edge rounded. The surface is finely furrowed, dotted. The nut is crowned with the style, which is conical below, and is not as long as the bristles. The plant is 6-8 in. high, flowering in June and July, and is a herbaceous perennial.
Cluster-headed Club Rush(Scirpus Holoschaenus, L.). - The habitat of this plant is sandy sea-coasts. The plant has the bulrush habit. The rootstock is creeping. The stems are tall, round in section, tufted, stout. The margins of the sheaths are united by netted fibres. The leaves are few, erect, channelled, awl-like, rigid, and occur on the upper sheaths, and are not so long as the stem, half round, with rough margins. The spikelets are very small, in dense, round clusters forming a cyme, the upper shortly stalked or stalkless, the branches half round and very stout. The lower bract is erect, oblongf, with a flat, open channel, the upper spreading or ascending-. The glumes are inversely egg-shaped, notched, with a blunt point, fringed with hairs, variegated brown and white. The fruit is nearly round, blunt-pointed, wrinkled. The anthers have a long point, and are entire or toothed. There are 3 stigmas. The plant is 3-4 ft. in height, flowering from August to October, and is a herbaceous perennial.
The habitat of this plant is sandy seashores, mud flats, and estuarine mud. The habit is as in the last. It is a small species (hence parvulus and nanus). The rootstock is creeping, long, with hair-like or slender stolons, with egg-shaped to awl-like tubers. The stems are numerous, grooved, transversely rounded, with one small sheath, very slender, closely pressed, leafless. The leaves are radical, slender, bristlelike, enlarged below, bent back, channelled. The spikelets are very small, few-flowered, pale, egg-shaped, oval. The glumes are egg-shaped, blunt, keeled, membranous, the lowest flowerless, not longer than the spikelet, the two outer longer. The bristles are 4-8, twice as long as the nut, barbed, the hairs bent downwards. The nut is pale, inversely egg-shaped to oblong, 3-angled, smooth, blunt-pointed. The plant is 1-2 ft. high, flowering in July and August, and is a herbaceous annual.
Scirpus Tabernaemontani, Gmel. = 5. glaucus, Sm. - The habitat of this plant is brackish ditches, usually near the sea, rivers, and ponds. The habit is as in the last. The plant is creeping below. The stems are round in section, bluish-green (hence glaucus), with 1 or 2 long sheaths below. The plant has 2 floating leaves, as in 5. lacuslris. The spikelets are in a terminal, compound panicle, smaller than the common type. The lower bract is short. The glumes are rough, notched, fringed, the anthers are not bearded, but the tips are smooth. There are 2 stigmas. The nut is flattened at the border, round, oblong, smooth. The plant is 1-3 ft. high, flowering between July and September, and is a herbaceous perennial.