Order 35

Araliaceae (Hederaceoe)

188. Hedera. - Shrub, climbing by roots; stem woody; calyx superior, limb 5-fid; petals, stamens, and styles 5-10; fruit a berry, 5-celled, 5-seeded.

Order 36


189. Cornus. - Shrub or herbaceous plant; calyx-limb superior, 4-fid; petals 4; stamens 4; style 1; fruit a drupe; stone 2-celled.

Order 37


190. Adoxa. - Herbaceous plant; leaves 3-nately compound; calyx 2-3-cleft; corolla rotate, 4-5-lobed; stamens 8-10, in pairs; styles 5-10; fruit 4-5-celled.

191. Sambucus. - Shrub or large herb; leaves pinnate; calyx 5-cleft; corolla rotate, 5-lobed; stamens 5; stigmas 3, sessile; fruit 3-4-seeded.

192. Viburnum. - Shrubs, deciduous; leaves simple; calyx 5-cleft; corolla bell-shaped or funnel-shaped; stamens 5; stigmas 3, sessile; fruit 1-seeded.

193. Linnaea. - Evergreencreepingshrub; calyx-segments awl-like; corolla bell-shaped; stamens 4, unequal.

194. Lonicera. - Shrubs, deciduous, climbing; calyx 5-cleft; corolla tubular or funnel-shaped, 5-fid or irregular; stamens 5; style slender; ovary 2-3-celled; ovules many in each cell.

Order 38. Rubiaceae

195. Rubia. - Calyx none; corolla rotate, 5-cleft; fruit succulent.

196. Galium. - Calyx none; corolla rotate, 4-fid; fruit dry.

197. Asperula. - Calyx-limb reduced; corolla funnel-shaped; fruit dry.

198. Sherardia. - Flowers in an umbel with involucre; calyx-teeth 4-6; corolla funnel-shaped; fruit dry, crowned with calyx.

Order 39. Valerianaceae

199. Valeriana. - Calyxpappose; corolla 5-lobed, without spur, gibbous; stamens 3; fruit crowned with feathery pappus, 1-celled.

200. Kentranthus (Centranthus). - Calyx pappose; corolla 5-lobed, spurred; stamen 1; fruit crowned with feathery pappus, 1-celled.

201. Valerianella. - Calyx toothed or lobed; corolla obconical, not spurred, 5-lobed; stamens 3; fruit crowned with unequal teeth of calyx-limb.

Order 40. Dipsaceae

202. Dipsacus. - Calyx-limb cup-shaped, entire; floral bracts spinose, exserted, covering the head; corolla 4-5-fid; stamens 4; fruit crowned with pappose calyx.

203. Scabiosa (including Knautia). - Floral bracts concealed, scale-like or o; calyx-limb 4-15 bristles.

Order 41. Compositae (Asteraceoe)

204. Eupatorium. - Flowerheads reddish-purple; florets few, all tubular, funnel-shaped, bisexual; phyllaries overlapping, oblong; anthers included; style arms exserted; receptacle naked.

205. Solidago. - Flowerheads with ray; florets all yellow; involucral bracts overlapping; anthers simple; pappus in 1 row, rigid; fruit round in section.

206. Bellis. - Receptacle conical, naked; scape 1-flowered; involucral bracts in 2 rows, equal, blunt; achene flattened; pappus o.

207. Aster. - Ray florets in 1 row, female, ligu-late; disk florets tubular, perfect; receptacle naked, pitted; phyllaries overlapping; pappus rigid, in many rows.

208. Erigeron. - Like 207, but ray florets in several rows.

209. Filago. - Receptacle conical; marginal scales few; flowerheads bisexual; outer florets female, in several rows, outermost with a few inner phyllaries; disk florets tubular, few.

210. Antennaria. - Plant dioecious as a rule; receptacle flat, naked; male florets tubular; pappus club-shaped; female florets slender; phyllaries with coloured tip.

211. Gnaphalium. - Flowerheads bisexual, tubular; receptacle, flat, naked; involucre hemispherical, with overlapping phyllaries.

212. Inula. - Ray florets female, ligulate; disk florets tubular, bisexual; receptacle naked; involucral bracts overlapping; anthers bristly below; pappus simple, hair-like, rough.

213. Pulicaria. - Phyllaries in few rows, loosely overlapping; anthers bristly below; pappus in 2 rows, with another row of short scales, rough.

214. Xanthium. - Plant monoecious; male florets: with involucre of 1 row of free phyllaries; receptacle scaly; corolla funnel-shaped; anthers free; female florets: 2, in beaked involucre, with hooked spines; corolla and stamens o; fruit flattened.

215. Bidens. - Leaves opposite; flowerheads sometimes rayed; disk florets bisexual, tubular; receptacle flat; phyllaries in 2 rows; pappus of 2-5 barbed bristles.

216. Galinsoga. - Receptacle conical, scaly; ray florets in 1 row, female, ligulate; disk florets tubular, perfect; phyllaries 4-5, ciliate, in 1 row; pappus of broad ciliate scales.

217. Achillea. - Receptacle conical, scaly; ray florets female, ligulate, short; ligule broad, short; disk florets tubular, perfect; phyllaries overlapping; fruit flattened, winged; pappus o.

218. Diotis. - Receptacle scaly; flowerheads discoidal, all tubular, perfect; tube auricled below; compressed; fruit crowned with auricled tube; pappus o.

219. Anthemis. - Receptacle conical, scaly; ray florets female or neuter, ligulate, in 1 row; disk florets tubular, perfect; ligule oblong; fruit round in section; pappus o.

220. Chrysanthemum. - Receptacle flat or convex, naked; phyllaries with membranous margins; fruit of disk florets not winged, of ray florets slightly winged; pappus o.

221. Matricaria. - Receptacle convex or at length conical, lengthening, naked; phyllaries without membranous margins; fruit angular; pappus o.

222. Cotula. - Plant succulent; leaves clasping; flowerheads solitary, discoidal, yellow.

223. Tanacetum. - Receptacle broad, not scaly; phyllaries overlapping, numerous, in many series; involucre hemispherical; fruit angular.

224. Artemisia. - Receptacle narrow, not scaly; phyllaries in few rows; fruit obovate, with epi-gynous disk; involucre roundish.

225. Tussilago. - Flowerheads solitary on scapes, with many florets; ray-florets ligulate, female, in many rows; disk florets tubular, male; phyllaries in 1 row, with membranous margins.

226. Petasites. - Plant sub-dioecious; flowerheads in raceme, numerous, pink; outer florets tubular; female florets slender, blunt, or shortly ligulate, in many rows (in male flowerheads in 1 row); male florets tubular, few and central in female flowerheads, forming entire disk in male flowerheads.