This section is from the book "British Wild Flowers - In Their Natural Haunts Vol5-6", by A. R. Horwood. Also available from Amazon: A British Wild Flowers In Their Natural Haunts.
The habitat of this sedge is cliffs, ledges of alpine rocks, lofty mountains. The plant has the sedge habit. The rootstock, which is tufted, is creeping, and bears stolons. The stems are 3-sided, rough above, wiry. The leaves are flat, channelled, curved, and end in a twisted, withered, wavy, rough, slender, triangular point, the margins bent over. The bracts are awl-like or wanting. The spikelets are narrow, dark-brown, shining. The male spikelets are at the top. The glumes of the female spikelets are few, broadly ovate, blunt, shorter than the fruit. The glumes are persistent, brown. The fruit is erect, inversely ovate, elliptic, appressed, 3-angled, with a short, abrupt beak, pale, smooth. There are 3 stigmas. The nut is inversely ovoid, 3-angled, brown. The plant is 3-6 in. high, flowering in June and Jul)-, and is a herbaceous perennial.
Carex lagopina, Wahl.(=C. Lachenalii, Schkr.). - The habitat of this species is wet places on Scotch mountains. The plant has the sedge habit. The rootstock is tufted, the stolons short, rough above. The stem is triangular, smooth, wiry, curved below. The leaves are flat. The spike is brown, elliptic. The spikelets are elliptic, egg-shaped, 2-4, crowded, small, touching, the terminal longer. The glumes are reddish, with pale edges, oval, nearly as long as the fruit. The fruit is elliptic, erect, blunt-pointed, with an entire beak, membranous at the tip, and planoconvex, narrowed below, the nut tipped with the persistent style. The plant is 4-8 in. high, flowering in July and August, and is a herbaceous perennial.
The plant has the sedge habit. The rootstock has short stolons. The stems are erect, more or less solitary, rigid, 3-sided, smooth or rather rough above. The leaves are short, flat, bent-back. The spikelets are 2-4, stalkless, round or oblong, close, the lateral nearly horizontal, black. The bract is slender. The glumes are brown or black, ovate, acute or blunt, broad, crowded. The fruit is broad, inversely ovoid, yellowish-brown, without veins, rough above, larger than the glumes, with a short, rough, notched beak. The nuts are ellipsoid, inversely ovoid, 3-sided, pale, blunt, beaked. The plant is 6-15 in. high, flowering from June to August, and is a herbaceous perennial.
The habitat of this species is ledges of alpine rocks, mountains, cliffs. The habit is as in the last. The rootstock is small, tufted, and bears stolons. The stems are bent at an angle, 3-sided, hardly rough above, smooth elsewhere. The leaves are broad, large, flat, keeled. The bracts exceed the spikelets. The sheaths are short. The lower bract is leaflike. The spikelets are 3-4, nearly cylindric, ovate, oblong, close, rarely distant, shortly stalked, the uppermost mostly male, and are inclined, or drooping at length. The glumes are dark-purple, black, the midrib pale and slender, acute, erect, overlapping. The fruit is yellowish, more or less round, elliptic, 3-angled, when ripe flattened, smooth, veinless, not so long as the glumes. The beak is round, short, notched, smooth. The nut is elliptic, 3-angled, blunt, with a short point. The plant is 6-18 in. high, flowering in July and August, and is a herbaceous perennial.