It. Idaeus: stems biennial, erect, 3-4 feet high, armed with weak prickles; leaves pinnate, leaflets five in the lower, three in the upper ones, ovate or oblong, pointed, coarsely toothed, whitish underneath; flowers white, in panicles at the ends of the short branches; petals small, narrow, whitish; fruit red, separating from the receptacle when ripe. - Raspberry. - Thickets and woods. Fl. June.
R. fruticosus: stems biennial, or of few years' duration, erect, or more frequently arched straggling or prostrate, armed with prickles stiff hairs or glandular bristles; leaves digitate, the leaflets 3-5, rather large, coarse, ovate, toothed, the midribs and stalks armed with hooked prickles; flowers white or pink, in panicles at the ends of the branches; fruit black, or dull-red. - Bramble, or Blackberry. - Hedges, thickets, woods, and waste places. Fl. June and July.
A large number of Brambles, often considered as species, occur in Britain, but for these we must refer to more technical books, just mentioning a few of the most distinct: R. fruticosus (type) has the leaflets covered underneath with a close, white down; flowers usually numerous. - Hedges and thickets.
R. corylifolius has the leaflets green underneath, usually large and broad; flowers not so numerous as in the last. - Hedges and thickets, flowering earlier.
R. carpinifolius has the leaflets green underneath, but not so broad, and more pointed than in the last, the stems more hairy; flowers not numerous. - Woods.
R. glandulosus has the leaflets as in the last, or sometimes broader, the stems with numerous stiff, glandular hairs mixed with the prickles. - Shady woods.
R. suberectus has the leaflets green, or slightly hoary underneath; stems shorter and more erect than in the common forms; flowers usually few, and the fruit not so black. - Wet woods and thickets.
R. csesius: stems slender, more or less glaucous when young, spreading, or creeping along the ground, seldom arched; leaves ternate; flowers few, in small, loose panicles; fruit covered with glaucous bloom when ripe. - Dewberry. - Open fields and stony wastes. Fl. June to August.
It. saxatilis: stems ascending, simple, seldom above one foot high, slender, downy, with few prickles; leaves ternate, the leaflets obovate, coarsely-serrate; flowers on slender pedicels, two or three together in the axils of the upper leaves, forming short racemes or corymbs, dirty white or greenish yellow; berries red, with few large carpels. - Stony mountainous places. - Fl. June.
It. Chamsemorus: stems simple, herbaceous, unarmed, 6-10 inches high; leaves few, large, simple, broadly orbicular or reniform, deeply-cut into 5-9 broad lobes; flowers white, rather large, solitary on terminal peduncles; fruit orange-red. - Cloudberry. - Turfy Alpine bogs. Fl. June.
(89) Rosa. Rose. * Branches hearing glandular spiny hairs (setae). † Prickles straight, slender, scarcely dilated at the base. It. pimpinellifolia (spinosissima of authors): shrub erect, branched, 1-2 feet high, with numerous, unequal, straight, slender prickles, intermixed with glandular hairs; leaflets small, 7-9, with simple teeth; flowers small, white or pink, solitary at the end of the short branches; calyx-segments lanceolate, almost always entire; fruit black, rarely red, globular or nearly so, crowned by the persistent segments of the calyx. - Sandy heaths. - Fl. May, June. The origin of our garden Scotch Hoses.
†† Prickles hooked, very unequal, much dilated at the base. It. rubiginosa: shrub; bushy, somewhat slender, the prickles of the stems curved and intermixed with a few setae; leaflets small, usually doubly-toothed, glandular, scented; flowers pink, usually solitary; fruit ovoid or oblong, the primordial ones pear-shaped, smooth or rarely bearing a very few small prickles. - Sweetbriar. - Hedges and thickets. Fl. June, July. There are two or three forms of this Rose.
** Stems without glandular spiny hairs (seta). † Leaves glandulose on their disk or surface.
R. villosa: shrub; erect, bushy, 3-6 feet high, the prickles of the stem straight or but slightly curved; leaflets softly downy on both sides, almost always doubly-toothed; flowers white or pale pink; calyx-segments long, and often expanded near the top, sometimes entire, sometimes pinnately lobed; fruit red, globular, covered with small fine prickles. - Hedges and thickets. Fl. June, July. There are several forms.
†† Leaves ivithout glands on their dish. ‡ Styles distinct.
R. canina: shrub, stems of several years' duration, the first year erect, simple, 3-4 feet high, the flowering stems of two or more years branched, rather weak and straggling, 6-8 feet long, glabrous, without glands, armed with curved or hooked prickles; leaflets five, sometimes seven, ovate, usually glabrous and simply toothed, or downy on the under side and then often doubly-toothed; flowers pink or white, sweet-scented, solitary or 3-4 together at the ends of the branches; fruit ovoid, without bristles, the calyx-lobes pinnate, deciduous before the fruit is ripe. - Hedges and thickets; the commonest of our Roses, and variable. Fl. June, July.
‡‡ Styles united into a column.
R. arvensis: shrub; stems long, trailing, often extending many feet, with slender branches; foliage and prickles nearly as in the last, the prickles usually small and much hooked, and the leaflets simply serrate; flowers white, scentless, usually 3-4 together at the ends of the branches, rarely solitary; fruit globular or nearly so, without bristles, the calyx-divisions mostly entire, and falling off before the fruit is ripe; styles united into a column protruding from the orifice of the calyx-tube. - Hedges and thickets. "Fl. June to August.