This section is from the book "An Illustrated Flora Of The Northern United States, Canada And The British Possessions Vol2", by Nathaniel Lord Britton, Addison Brown. Also available from Amazon: An Illustrated Flora of the Northern United States, Canada and the British Possessions. 3 Volume Set..
167. 1861. Amaranthus Torreyi Benth.; S. Wats. Bot. Cal. 2:
2: 42. 1889.
Glabrous or nearly so, stem stout or slender, erect, grooved, usually much branched above, 2°-3° tall. Leaves lanceolate or rhombic-lanceolate, thin, narrowed above to a rather blunt apex, mostly cuneate at the base, 1 1/2'-4' long, 1/4'-1' wide, slender-petioled; flowers dioecious, borne in terminal slender sometimes panicled spikes and in small axillary clusters; bracts shorter than or about equalling the 5 sepals, cuspidate; sepals of the pistillate flowers obovate or broadly spatulate, clawed, obtuse or emarginate, those of the staminate flowers narrower and subacute; utricle dry, indehiscent.
Amaranthus lividus L. Sp. Pl. 990. 1753.
Euxolus lividus Moq. in DC. Prodr. 132: 275. 1849.
Glabrous, rather succulent, purplish-green or red; stem erect, slender, branched, 1°-3° tall. Leaves ovate, entire, 1'-3' long, strongly emarginate at the apex, narrowed at the base, slender-petioled; flowers monoecious or polygamous, in dense terminal spikes and in capitate axillary clusters usually much shorter than the petioles; bracts shorter than the 2 or 3 oblong or spatulate sepals; utricle dry, sca-rious, smooth, indehiscent, longer than the sepals.
Amaranthus grácilis Desf., which differs mainly from this species by its warty utricle, has been found in ballast at the seaports and is reported from Ohio. It is native of tropical America and has been confused with A. viridis L.
Amaranthus deflexus L. Mant. 2: 295. 1771. Euxolus deflexus Raf. Fl. Tell. 3: 42. 1836.
Glabrous, purplish-green, rather succulent, stem usually much branched, erect, stout or slender, 1°-3° tall. Leaves ovate or oval, obtuse retuse or emarginate at the apex, mostly narrowed at the base, 1'-3' long, 1/2'-1 1/2' wide, slender-petioled, the petioles often as long as the blades or the lower ones longer; flowers polygamous in dense, mostly short and thick terminal spikes and capitate in the axils; bracts shorter than the 2 or 3 oblong or spatulate sepals usually very short; utricle fleshy, 3-5-nerved, smooth, indehiscent, longer than the sepals when ripe.
In waste places and ballast along the coast, Massachusetts to southern New York. Also in California. Probably adventive from Europe. July-Sept.