3. Magnolia Tripétala L. Umbrella- Or Cucumber-Tree. Elk-Wood

Fig. 1847

Magnolia tripetala L. Sp. Pl. Ed. 2, 756. 1763. Magnolia virginiana var. tripetala L. Sp. Pl. 536. 1753. Magnolia umbrella Lam. Encycl. 3: 673. 1789.

A tree 20°-45° high, trunk 4'-18' in diameter. Leaf-buds glabrous; leaves clustered at the summits of the flowering branches, 1°-1 1/2° long, 4'-8' wide, obovate to oblanceolate, acute, cuneate at the base, dark green and glabrous above, light green and more or less pubescent beneath, at least when young; petioles stout, 1'-3' long; flowers 8'-10' in diameter, white, slightly odorous; sepals broad, reflexed, early deciduous; petals oblong-lanceolate or obovate-lanceolate, acutish; cone of fruit 4'-6' long, rose-colored when mature.

In woods, southeastern Pennsylvania to Georgia, west to Missouri, Arkansas and Mississippi. Heart-wood brown, soft; sap-wood white; weight per cubic foot 28 lbs. The name tripetala is in allusion to the 3 petaloid petals. May.

4. Magnolia Virginiŕna L. Laurel Magnolia. Sweet Bay

Fig. 1848

M. virginiana and var. glauca L. Sp. PL 535. 1753. Magnolia glauca L. Sp. Pl. Ed. 2, 755. 1763.

A shrub, or tree 15°-75° high, trunk 5'-3 1/2° in diameter. Leaf-buds pubescent; leaves scattered along the flowering branches, 3'-6' long, I'-at broad, oval or oblong, obtuse or blunt-acuminate, acute at the base, coriaceous, dark green above, glaucous and more or less pubescent beneath, deciduous in the North, persistent in the South; petioles about 1' long; flowers white, depressed-globose, deliciously fragrant, 2-3' in diameter; sepals spreading, obtuse, nearly as large as the obovate rounded petals; cone of fruit oblong, 1 1/2'-2' high, pink.

In swamps and swampy woods, eastern Massachusetts, Long Island, Lebanon County, Pa., and southward, mainly east of the Alleghanies to Florida, west through the Gulf States to Arkansas and Texas. Heart-wood soft, reddish-brown; sap-wood nearly white; weight 31 lbs. White-bay, swamp- or white-laurel. Swamp-magnolia or -sassafras. Beaver-tree. Indian-bark. May-June.

4 Magnolia Virgini Na L Laurel Magnolia Sweet Bay 1904 Magnolia Virgini Na L Laurel Magnolia Sweet Bay 191

5. Magnolia Acuminata L. Cucumber-Tree. Mountain Magnolia

Fig. 1849

Magnolia virginiana var. acuminata L. Sp. Pl. 536. 1753.

Magnolia acuminata L. Sp. Pl. Ed. 2, 756. 1763.

A tree 60°-90° high, the trunk up to 4 1/2o in diameter. Leaf-buds silky-pubescent; leaves scattered along the branches, 6-10' long, 3'~4' wide, thin, oval, acute or somewhat acuminate, rounded or truncate at the base, light green and more or less pubescent on the lower surface, especially along the veins; petioles I'-1 1/2 long; flowers oblong-campanulate, greenish-yellow, 2' high; petals obovate or oblong, much longer than the spreading deciduous sepals; cone of fruit cylindric, 3'-4' long, about I' in diameter, rose-colored when mature.

In woods, New York and Ontario to Illinois, Missouri, Georgia, Mississippi and Arkansas. Heart-wood soft, yellowish-brown; sap-wood lighter. Weight per cubic foot 29 lbs. Ascends to 4200 ft. in Virginia. Yellow or black linn. May-June.