Erect, perennial herbs, sometimes decumbent at the base, with alternate odd-pinnate stipulate leaves and small perfect or polygamo-dioecious flowers in dense terminal peduncled spikes. Calyx-tube turbinate, constricted at the throat, angled or winged, persistent, 4-lobed, the lobes petaloid, concave, deciduous. Petals none. Stamens 4, inserted on the throat of the calyx; filaments filiform, elongated, exserted; anthers short; carpel enclosed in the calyx-tube opposite the sepals. Style filiform, terminal; stigmas papillose; ovule suspended. Achene enclosed in the dry angled calyx. Seed pendulous. [Latin, blood-staunching, from its supposed properties.]

About 10 species, natives of the north temperate zone. In addition to the following, 2 or 3 others occur in the western parts of North America. Type species: Sanguisorba officinalis L.

1. Sanguisorba Canadensis L. American Great Burnet

Fig. 2264

Sanguisorba canadensis L. Sp. Pl. 117. 1753. Poterium canadense A. Gray, Man. Ed. 5, 150. 1867.

Glabrous or slightly pubescent toward the base, erect, simple, or branched above, 1°-6° high, the branches erect. Stipules often foliaceous and dentate; basal leaves long-petioled, sometimes 2° long; leaflets 7 - 15, ovate, oblong, or oval, obtuse or acutish, cordate or obtuse at the base, serrate with acute teeth, stalked, 1' - 3' long; flowers white, perfect, bracteolate at the base, in dense terminal showy spikes 1' - 6' long; stamens 4; filaments long-exserted, white; achene enclosed in the 4-winged calyx.

In swamps and low meadows, Newfoundland to Michigan, south to Georgia. July-Oct.

Sanguisorba officinalis L., native of Europe and Asia, found in fields in Maine and recorded from Minnesota, differs in having purplish flowers with short stamens not longer than the sepals.

1 Sanguisorba Canadensis L American Great Burnet 606