Herbs, some exotic species shrubby, with alternate entire dentate or lobed leaves, or the lower and those of sterile shoots opposite or verticillate, and yellow white blue purple or variegated flowers, in terminal bracted racemes or spikes. Calyx 5-parted, the segments imbricated. Corolla irregular, spurred at the base, or the spur rarely obsolete, 2-lipped, the upper lip erect, 2-lobed, covering the lower in the bud, the lower spreading, 3-lobed, its base produced into a palate often nearly closing the throat. Stamens 4, didynamous, ascending, included; filaments and style filiform. Capsule ovoid or globose, opening by 1 or more mostly 3-toothed pores or slits below the summit. Seeds numerous, wingless or winged, angled or rugose. [Latin, linum, flax, which some species resemble.]

About 150 species, of wide geographic distribution, most abundant in the Old World. Besides the following, another species occurs in Florida. The corolla, especially the terminal one of the raceme, occasionally has 5 spurs and is regularly 5-lobed, and is then said to be in the Peloria state. Type species: Antirrhinum Linaria L.

Flowers yellow, 8"-15" long; leaves linear; flowers 12"-15" long. Leaves alternate.

1. L. Linaria.

Lower leaves whorled.

2. L. supina.

Flowers blue to white, 3"-6" long.

Spur of corolla filiform, curved; native species.

3. L. canadensis.

Spur of the corolla short, conic; European adventive species.

4. L. repens.

1. Linaria Linaria (L.) Karst. Ranstead. Butter-And-Eggs

Fig. 3743

Antirrhinum Linaria L. Sp. Pl. 616. 1753. Linaria vulgaris Hill, Brit. Herb. 108. 1756. Linaria Linaria Karst. Deutsch. Fl. 947. 1880-83.

Perennial by short rootstocks, pale green and slightly glaucous; stems slender, erect, very leafy, glabrous, or sparingly glandular-pubescent above, simple or with few erect branches, 1°-3° high. Leaves linear, sessile, entire, acute at both ends, mostly alternate, 1/2'-1 1/2' long, 1"-1 1/2" wide; flowers densely racemose, light yellow, \'-\\' long, the spur of the erect corolla somewhat darker, the palate orange-colored; pedicels 2"-4" long, nearly erect; calyx-segments oblong, acutish, about 1 1/2" long; spur subulate, nearly as long as the body of the corolla; middle lobe of the lower lip shorter than the other two; capsule ovoid, the seeds rugose, winged.

In fields and waste places, Newfoundland to Oregon, Virginia and New Mexico. Naturalized from Europe. Native also of Asia. June-Oct. Brideweed. Flaxweed.

Eggs and bacon. Yellow toad-flax. Impudent lawyer. Jacob's-ladder.

Rancid. Wild flax or tobacco. Devil's flax. Snap-dragon. Devil'sflower. Dead men's bones. Bread and butter. Continental weed.

Gallwort. Rabbit-flower. Widely distributed in temperate regions as a weed.

Linaria genistaefolia (L.) Mill., found many years ago at the northern part of New York Island, and admitted into the first edition of this work, has not recently been collected in America.

1 Linaria Linaria L Karst Ranstead Butter And Eggs 4141 Linaria Linaria L Karst Ranstead Butter And Eggs 415

2. Linaria Supina Desf. Supine Linaria

Fig. 3744

Linaria supina Desf. Fl. Atlant. 2: 44. 1800.

Perennial by short rootstocks, bright green; stems few or numerous, decumbent, 4'-g' long, glabrous or slightly glandular-pubescent. Leaves linear-spatulate to narrowly linear, the lower ones whorled, the upper alternate, mostly 5"-15" long; flowers few together in short racemes, nearly similar to those of L. Linaria, but smaller; capsule globose or ovoid-globose.

Waste places and ballast, northern Atlantic seaboard. Naturalized from Europe.

3. Linaria Canadensis (L.) Dumort. Blue Or Wild Toad-Flax

Fig. 3745

Antirrhinum canadense L. Sp. Pl. 618. 1753.

Linaria canadensis Dumont, Bot. Cult. 2: 96. 1802.

Biennial or annual, glabrous, green, sometimes fleshy; flowering stems erect or ascending, very slender, simple, or branched, 4'-2 1/2° high, the sterile shoots spreading or procumbent, very leafy. Leaves linear or linear-oblong, 4"-15" long, 1/2"-1" wide, entire, sessile, those of the sterile shoots, or some of them, usually opposite; flowers 3"-4" long, in slender long racemes; pedicels 2"-3" long, erect and appressed in fruit, minutely bracted at the base; calyx-segments lanceolate, acute or acuminate, about as long as the capsule; spur of the corolla filiform, curved, as long as the tube or longer; palate a white convex 2-ridged projection; capsule opening by 2 apical valves, each valve becoming 3-toothed; seeds angled, wingless.

In dry soil, Nova Scotia to Florida, west to Minnesota, Oregon, Texas and California. Also in Central and South America. A dwarf form with no corolla is frequent. May-Sept.

3 Linaria Canadensis L Dumort Blue Or Wild Toad Fl 4163 Linaria Canadensis L Dumort Blue Or Wild Toad Fl 417

4. Linaria Repens (L.) Mill. Pale-Blue Toad-Flax

Fig. 3746

Antirrhinum repens L. Sp. Pl. 614. 1753.

Linaria repens Mill. Gard. Dict. Ed. 8, no. 6. 1768.

L. striata DC. Fl. France, 3: 586. 1805.

Glabrous, perennial by a horizontal or creeping rootstock; stem erect, or the base decumbent, 8'-30' high, usually branched, the branches slender. Leaves linear, entire, short-petioled or sessile, \'-2' long, l"-2" wide, narrowed to both ends, the lower crowded, sometimes whorled, the upper more scattered; flowers in slender terminal elongating racemes; pedicels 2"-5" long; bracts narrowly linear, acute; corolla nearly white, but striped with blue or purple, about 6" long; spur short, conic; capsule subglobose; seeds wrinkled, wingless.

Newfoundland, and in ballast about the Atlantic seaports. Adventive from Europe. Summer.