This section is from the book "An Illustrated Flora Of The Northern United States, Canada And The British Possessions Vol3", by Nathaniel Lord Britton, Addison Brown. Also available from Amazon: An Illustrated Flora of the Northern United States, Canada and the British Possessions. 3 Volume Set..
Galium Vaillantii DC. Fl. France 4: 263. 1805.
Galium Aparine var. Vaillantii Koch, Fl. Germ. 330. 1837.
Similar to the preceding species but smaller, the stem equally rough-angled. Leaves smaller, 1' in length or less, linear-oblong or slightly oblanceolate, cuspidate-pointed, rough on the margins and midrib; cymes 2-9-flowered; fruit 1"- 1 /2" broad, usually less hispid.
In low grounds, Ontario to British Columbia, Missouri, Arizona and to California. Europe. The European G. spurium L., to which this plant was referred in the first edition, appears to have uniformly smooth fruit.
Galium virgatum Nutt.; T. & G. Fl. N. A. 2: 20. 1841.
Annual, 4'-12' high, usually hispid, sometimes nearly glabrous; stem very slender, 4-angled, branched from the base, or simple. Leaves in 4's, oblong or linear-oblong, 21/2"-5" long, 1" wide, or less, obtuse or acutish; peduncles axillary, 1-flow-ered, less than 1" long, recurved in fruit; flower white, subtended by 2 large oblong to lanceolate bracts which closely resemble the leaves; fruit about 1" in diameter, covered with slender barbed bristles.
Dry prairies, barrens and glades, Tennessee and Missouri to Arkansas, Louisiana and Texas. April-June.
1803. Galium pilosum puncticulosum T. & G. Fl. N. A.
2: 24. 1841.
Perennial, more or less hirsute-pubescent or glabrate; stems ascending, branched, 1°-2 1/2° long. Leaves in 4's, oval or oval-ovate, punctate, 1-nerved, obtuse, or obscurely 3-nerved at the base, mucronulate, 4"-12" long, 2"-5" wide, the lower usually smaller; peduncles axillary and terminal; cymes numerous but few-flowered; pedicels 1"-6" long, flowers yellowish-purple; fruit dry, densely hispid, nearly 2" in diameter.
In dry or sandy soil, New Hampshire to Ontario, Michigan, Kansas, Florida and Texas. June-Aug.
Galium circaezans var. lanceolatum Torr. Cat. Pl. N. Y. 23. 1819.
Galium lanceolatum Torr. Fl. U. S. 168. 1824.
Galium Torreyi Bigel. Fl. Bost. Ed. 2, 56. 1824.
Perennial, glabrous or nearly so, the stems minutely roughened, simple or often branched. 1°-2° high. Leaves in 4's, lanceolate or ovate-lanceolate, acutish or acuminate, 3-nerved, more or less ciliate on the margins and nerves, 1'- 2 1/2' long, 5"-n" wide, the lower smaller and obtuse or obtusish; cymes rather few-flowered, loose, widely branched; flowers sessile or very nearly so; corolla glabrous, yellowish green to purple, its lobes acuminate; fruit dry, hispid with long hairs, 2"-2 1/2" broad.
In dry woods, Quebec and Ontario to Minnesota, south to North Carolina and Kentucky. Ascends to 4000 ft. in Virginia. June-Aug.