13. Galium Latifolium Michx. Purple Bedstraw

Fig. 3940

Galium latifolium Michx. Fl. Bor. Am. 1: 79. 1803.

Perennial, erect, smooth and glabrous (rarely hispid), branched, 1°-2° high. Leaves in 4's, lanceolate, 3-nerved, acute or acuminate at the apex, narrowed or rounded at the base, 1'-2' long, 4"- 8" wide, the midrib sometimes pubescent beneath, the margins minutely roughened, the lower smaller and sometimes opposite; pedunclcs axillary and terminal, slender, but usually shorter than the leaves; flowers purple; cymes loosely many-flowered, the pedicels slender, 2"-6" long, smooth or very nearly so; fruit smooth, slightly fleshy, 2" broad, usually only one of the carpels developing.

In dry woods in mountainpus regions, Pennsylvania to Tennessee and Georgia. May-Aug.

13 Galium Latifolium Michx Purple Bedstraw 61113 Galium Latifolium Michx Purple Bedstraw 612

14. Galium Arkansanum A. Gray. Arkansas Bedstraw

Fig. 3941

Galium arkansanum A. Gray, Proc. Am. Acad. 19: 80. 1883.

Similar to the preceding species but usually lower, the leaves linear-lanceolate, 6"-12" long, 1 "-3" wide, the lateral nerves obscure or none, the midrib sometimes pubescent beneath, and the margins ciliate; fruiting pedicels roughish, 3"-12" long; flowers brown-purple, the numerous cymes loosely several-many-flowered; fruit glabrous, warty, somewhat fleshy, each carpel 1"-1 1/2" in diameter.

Southern Missouri, Arkansas and Oklahoma. June-July.

15. Galium Mollugo L. Wild Madder. White Or Great Hedge Bedstraw

Fig. 3942

Galium Mollugo L. Sp. Pl. 107. 1753.

Perennial, glabrous or nearly so throughout. Stems smooth, erect, or diffusely branched, 1°-3° long; leaves in 6's or 8's, oblanceolate or linear, cuspidate at the apex, 6"-15" long, 1"-2" wide, sometimes roughish on the margins; flowers small, white, very numerous in terminal panicled cymes; pedicels filiform, divaricate; fruit smooth and glabrous, nearly 1" broad.

In fields and waste places, Newfoundland to Vermont, Ohio, Pennsylvania, New Jersey and Virginia. Naturalized from Europe. Called also whip-tongue. Infants'- or babies'-breath. May-Sept.

Galium erectum Huds., also European, differs slightly by having somewhat larger flowers on ascending pedicels, and is adventive in fields from Quebec to Connecticut and New York.

15 Galium Mollugo L Wild Madder White Or Great Hed 61315 Galium Mollugo L Wild Madder White Or Great Hed 614

16. Galium Sylvaticum L. Wood Bedstraw

Fig. 3943

G. sylvaticum L. Sp. Pl. Ed. 2, 155. 1762.

Perennial, erect, 2°-3° tall; stems several or many, shining, obtusely 4-angled, glabrous, or slightly pubescent, not scabrous. Leaves lanceolate or oblong-lanceolate, pale beneath, whorled in 8's or 6's, or those of the branches in 4's, or opposite, the larger sometimes 2' long; panicles large; pedicels filiform, erect-spreading in fruit; flowers white; corolla-lobes apiculate; fruit smooth.

Fields and thickets, Maine and Vermont, escaped from cultivation. Native of Europe. June-July.