Besides checking fermentation, spirit in the form of alcohol, neutral spirit, or whiskey in small quantities, gives to fermented liquids a desirable taste and an excellent body, i. e. a spirituous body.

When cheap liquids are to be formed as a substitute for spirit, grains of paradise are made use of. They should be ground and infused in the liquid during fermentation, or the infusion may be obtained by digesting the grains in whiskey. It must not be understood that the grains will check fermentation; their infusion only leaves impressions on the palate after being drunk, that are analogous to alcohol or spirit. Thus a beverage may be formed that will exhibit all of the sensible properties of alcohol to the palate, without any of its intoxicating influence.

Pellitory is sometimes combined with the grains, but the tingling, disagreeable impressions left in the throat and mouth after the liquid has been swallowed, render the use of this acrimonious substance objectionable.

Ground mustard or horseradish are both used for the same purpose as the articles just mentioned. The properties of mustard and horseradish are identical - these properties are destroyed by heat - as boiling water, etc..

The use of Bitters in Ale and Porter. - Ale and porter are considered to be the healthiest of all of the fermented beverages, owing to the tonic and nutritive properties that these liquids derive from the presence of starch, and the bitter principle of the hops.

To avoid the costly price of the hops, the small dealers and bottlers of ale and porter, as a substitute for the bitter of the hop, make use of quassia, nux-vomica or strychnin, aloes, catechu, pellitory. long pepper, wormwood, gentian; and for a false strength, similar to alcohol, cocculus indicus, copperas, and grains of paradise.

Clarification can be effected by filtration through sand and charcoal. These consist of alternate layers or beds of sand and powdered charcoa; each bed or layer is six to eight inches deep, and may consist of five or six layers of each, and can be packed in a wine pipe or other convenient vessel. The fragments of charcoal for this purpose should be of the size of a garden pea.

The most convenient plan for clarifying, is by the aid of finings, such as eggs, milk, and isinglass. The milk should be added while it is boiling, and the isinglass should be bruised to shreds before adding. The use of eggs will be mentioned under the head of Coloring.